(A–B) PCA (in panel A) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA; in panel B) of averaged PRP data for one example odorant pair, APEBexp1. (A) PCA of PRP data from naïve (i,iii) to proficient (ii,iv)—(i,ii): theta/beta, (iii,iv): theta/high gamma. Both PRPs for S+ and S- are discriminable with learning. (B) Decoding performance for the LDA of PRP data over learning (i,iii: naïve, ii,iv: proficient). i,ii: theta/beta, iii,iv: theta/high gamma. In the proficient state, LDA can decode stimulus identity using both PRPs (theta/beta PRP GLM naïve-proficient p value < 0.001, 104 d.f.; theta/high gamma PRP GLM naïve-proficient p value < 0.001, 104 d.f.). Peak and trough carry similar information for theta/beta; both peak- and trough-referenced beta power can be used to decode stimulus identity with learning. In theta/high gamma, peak PRP is significantly better at decoding the stimulus identity than trough PRP (GLM p value < 0.001, 104 d.f.), which is still better than shuffled data. (C) Area under the curve (AUC) for peak versus trough PRP over task learning (i,iii: naïve, ii,iv: proficient) for all odorant pairs and experiments. i,ii: Theta/beta PRP. iii,iv: For theta/high gamma PRP GLM statistics show that peak AUC is significantly higher than trough (p value < 0.001 for six odorant pairs, 184 d.f.) and that there are significant changes over learning (p value < 0.001 for six odorant pairs, 184 d.f.). These data suggest that peak PRP decodes stimulus identity better than trough PRP. (D) Average peak AUC (±CI) for all odorant pairs for theta/beta and theta/high gamma PRP for proficient mice for the two experimental settings. The learning-induced changes in PRP are larger in Exp2 (GLM p value < 0.05 for experiment, 102 d.f., *post hoc p<pFDR = 0.03). (E) Decoding performance for the LDA of PRP data for proficient mice calculated for the different behavioral outcomes of the go-no go task (Hit: red, Miss: cyan, CR: blue, FA: magenta, shuffled: black). i: Theta/beta PRP, ii: Theta/high gamma PRP. A GLM analysis indicates that there are significant differences between all behavioral outcomes except for Hit vs. CR for theta/high gamma (p<0.001 for all outcome pairs, except for Hit vs CR for theta/beta PRP that has p<0.01 and Hit vs. CR for theta/high gamma that has p>0.05, 2110 d.f.). There is no significant difference between experiments (GLM p>0.05, 2110 d.f.). The lines in A,B and E are bounded by the bootstrapped 95% CI..