Exposure to early-life adversity (ELA) increases the risk for psychopathologies associated with amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits. While sex differences in vulnerability have been identified with a clear need for individualized intervention strategies, the neurobiological substrates of ELA-attributable differences remain unknown due to a paucity of translational investigations taking both development and sex into account. Male and female rats exposed to maternal separation ELA were analyzed with anterograde tracing from basolateral amygdala (BLA) to PFC to identify sex-specific innervation trajectories through juvenility (PD28) and adolescence (PD38;PD48). Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) was assessed longitudinally (PD28;PD48) in a separate cohort. All measures were related to anxiety-like behavior. ELA-exposed rats showed precocial maturation of BLA-PFC innervation, with females affected earlier than males. ELA also disrupted maturation of female rsFC, with enduring relationships between rsFC and anxiety-like behavior. This study is the first providing both anatomical and functional evidence for sex- and experience-dependent corticolimbic development.
All data generated for Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and S4 are provided as source data files. Data generated for Figures 5 and 6 will be made available once an ongoing additional analysis is completed for another research report.Data deposited to Dryad, doi:10.5061/dryad.jdfn2z371
Data from: Altered corticolimbic connectivity reveals sex-specific adolescent outcomes in a rat model of early life adversityDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.jdfn2z371.
- Shayna Peterzell
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#19-0313R) of Northeastern University. The protocol was approved by the IACUC of Northeastern University (Animal Welfare #: D16-00095). All surgery was performed under isoflurane anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Alexander Shackman, University of Maryland, United States
© 2020, Honeycutt et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
During evolution, animals have returned from land to water, adapting with morphological modifications to life in an aquatic environment. We compared the osteochondral units of the humeral head of marine and terrestrial mammals across species spanning a wide range of body weights, focusing on microstructural organization and biomechanical performance. Aquatic mammals feature cartilage with essentially random collagen fiber configuration, lacking the depth-dependent, arcade-like organization characteristic of terrestrial mammalian species. They have a less stiff articular cartilage at equilibrium with a significantly lower peak modulus, and at the osteochondral interface do not have a calcified cartilage layer, displaying only a thin, highly porous subchondral bone plate. This totally different constitution of the osteochondral unit in aquatic mammals reflects that accommodation of loading is the primordial function of the osteochondral unit. Recognizing the crucial importance of the microarchitecture-function relationship is pivotal for understanding articular biology and, hence, for the development of durable functional regenerative approaches for treatment of joint damage, which are thus far lacking.
An animal’s responses to environmental cues are critical for its reproductive program. Thus, a mechanism that allows the animal to sense and adjust to its environment should make for a more efficient reproductive physiology. Here, we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans specific sensory neurons influence onset of oogenesis through insulin signaling in response to food-derived cues. The chemosensory neurons ASJ modulate oogenesis onset through the insulin-like peptide (ILP) INS-6. In contrast, other sensory neurons, the olfactory neurons AWA, regulate food type-dependent differences in C. elegans fertilization rates, but not onset of oogenesis. AWA modulates fertilization rates at least partly in parallel to insulin receptor signaling, since the insulin receptor DAF-2 regulates fertilization independently of food type, which requires ILPs other than INS-6. Together our findings suggest that optimal reproduction requires the integration of diverse food-derived inputs through multiple neuronal signals acting on the C. elegans germline.