Many animals collectively form complex patterns to tackle environmental difficulties. Several biological and physical factors, such as animal motility, population densities, and chemical cues, play significant roles in this process. However, very little is known about how sensory information interplays with these factors and controls the dynamics of pattern formation. Here, we study the direct relation between oxygen sensing, pattern formation, and emergence of swarming in active C. elegans aggregates. We find that when thousands of animals gather on food, bacteria-mediated decrease in oxygen level slows down the animals and triggers motility-induced phase separation. Three coupled factors—bacterial accumulation, aerotaxis, and population density—act together and control the entire dynamics. Furthermore, we find that biofilm-forming bacterial lawns including Bacillus Subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strongly alter the collective dynamics due to the limited diffusibility of bacteria. Additionally, our theoretical model captures behavioral differences resulting from genetic variations and oxygen sensitivity.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Askin Kocabas
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Sandeep Krishna, National Centre for Biological Sciences‐Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India
© 2020, Demir et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Little is known about how muscle length affects residual force enhancement (rFE) in humans. We therefore investigated rFE at short, long, and very long muscle lengths within the human quadriceps and patellar tendon (PT) using conventional dynamometry with motion capture (rFETQ) and a new, non-invasive shear-wave tensiometry technique (rFEWS). Eleven healthy male participants performed submaximal (50% max.) EMG-matched fixed-end reference and stretch-hold contractions across these muscle lengths while muscle fascicle length changes of the vastus lateralis (VL) were captured using B-mode ultrasound. We found significant rFETQ at long (7±5%) and very long (12±8%), but not short (2±5%) muscle lengths, whereas rFEWS was only significant at the very long (38±27%), but not short (8±12%) or long (6±10%) muscle lengths. We also found significant relationships between VL fascicle length and rFETQ (r=0.63, p=.001) and rFEWS (r=0.52, p=.017), but relationships were not significant between VL fascicle stretch amplitude and rFETQ (r=0.33, p=.126) or rFEWS (r=0.29, p=.201). PT shear-wave speed-angle relationships did not agree with estimated PT force-angle relationships, which indicates that estimating PT loads from shear-wave tensiometry might be inaccurate. We conclude that increasing muscle length rather than stretch amplitude contributes more to rFE during submaximal voluntary contractions of the human quadriceps.
In addition to diffusive signals, cells in tissue also communicate via long, thin cellular protrusions, such as airinemes in zebrafish. Before establishing communication, cellular protrusions must find their target cell. Here, we demonstrate that the shapes of airinemes in zebrafish are consistent with a finite persistent random walk model. The probability of contacting the target cell is maximized for a balance between ballistic search (straight) and diffusive search (highly curved, random). We find that the curvature of airinemes in zebrafish, extracted from live-cell microscopy, is approximately the same value as the optimum in the simple persistent random walk model. We also explore the ability of the target cell to infer direction of the airineme’s source, finding that there is a theoretical trade-off between search optimality and directional information. This provides a framework to characterize the shape, and performance objectives, of non-canonical cellular protrusions in general.