DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) have detrimental effects on cell survival and genomic stability, and are related to cancer and other human diseases. In this study, we identified microtubule-depolymerizing kinesin Kif2C as a protein associated with DSB-mimicking DNA templates and known DSB repair proteins in Xenopus egg extracts and mammalian cells. The recruitment of Kif2C to DNA damage sites was dependent on both PARP and ATM activities. Kif2C knockdown or knockout led to accumulation of endogenous DNA damage, DNA damage hypersensitivity, and reduced DSB repair via both NHEJ and HR. Interestingly, Kif2C depletion, or inhibition of its microtubule depolymerase activity, reduced the mobility of DSBs, impaired the formation of DNA damage foci, and decreased the occurrence of foci fusion and resolution. Taken together, our study established Kif2C as a new player of the DNA damage response, and presented a new mechanism that governs DSB dynamics and repair.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Aimin Peng
- Benjamin H Kwok
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Wolf-Dietrich Heyer, University of California, Davis, United States
© 2020, Zhu et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Reverse genetics is key to understanding protein function, but the mechanistic connection between a gene of interest and the observed phenotype is not always clear. Here we describe the use of proximity labeling using TurboID and site-specific quantification of biotinylated peptides to measure changes to the local protein environment of selected targets upon perturbation. We apply this technique, which we call PerTurboID, to understand how the P. falciparum exported kinase, FIKK4.1, regulates the function of the major virulence factor of the malaria causing parasite, PfEMP1. We generated independent TurboID fusions of 2 proteins that are predicted substrates of FIKK4.1 in a FIKK4.1 conditional KO parasite line. Comparing the abundance of site-specific biotinylated peptides between wildtype and kinase deletion lines reveals the differential accessibility of proteins to biotinylation, indicating changes to localization, protein-protein interactions, or protein structure which are mediated by FIKK4.1 activity. We further show that FIKK4.1 is likely the only FIKK kinase that controls surface levels of PfEMP1, but not other surface antigens, on the infected red blood cell under standard culture conditions. We believe PerTurboID is broadly applicable to study the impact of genetic or environmental perturbation on a selected cellular niche.
The primary cilium plays important roles in regulating cell differentiation, signal transduction, and tissue organization. Dysfunction of the primary cilium can lead to ciliopathies and cancer. The formation and organization of the primary cilium are highly associated with cell polarity proteins, such as the apical polarity protein CRB3. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CRB3 regulates ciliogenesis and the location of CRB3 remain unknown. Here, we show that CRB3, as a navigator, regulates vesicle trafficking in γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) assembly during ciliogenesis and cilium-related Hh and Wnt signaling pathways in tumorigenesis. Crb3 knockout mice display severe defects of the primary cilium in the mammary ductal lumen and renal tubule, while mammary epithelial-specific Crb3 knockout mice exhibit the promotion of ductal epithelial hyperplasia and tumorigenesis. CRB3 is essential for lumen formation and ciliary assembly in the mammary epithelium. We demonstrate that CRB3 localizes to the basal body and that CRB3 trafficking is mediated by Rab11-positive endosomes. Significantly, CRB3 interacts with Rab11 to navigate GCP6/Rab11 trafficking vesicles to CEP290, resulting in intact γTuRC assembly. In addition, CRB3-depleted cells are unresponsive to the activation of the Hh signaling pathway, while CRB3 regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Therefore, our studies reveal the molecular mechanisms by which CRB3 recognizes Rab11-positive endosomes to facilitate ciliogenesis and regulates cilium-related signaling pathways in tumorigenesis.