Convenient, efficient and fast whole-brain delivery of transgenes presents a persistent experimental challenge in neuroscience. Recent advances demonstrate whole-brain gene delivery by retro-orbital injection of virus, but slow and sparse expression and the large injection volumes required make this approach cumbersome, especially for developmental studies. We developed a novel method for efficient gene delivery across the central nervous system in neonatal mice and rats starting as early as P1 and persisting into adulthood. The method employs transverse sinus injections of 2-4μL of AAV9 at P0. Here, we describe how to use this method to label and/or genetically manipulate cells in the neonatal rat and mouse brain. The protocol is fast, simple, can be readily adopted by any laboratory, and utilizes the widely available AAV9 capsid. The procedure is adaptable for diverse experimental applications ranging from biochemistry, anatomical and functional mapping, gene expression, silencing, and editing.
Source data files have been provided for Figure 1, Figure 4, and Figure 5
- Ali S Hamodi
- Michael Crair
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All experimental procedures are in accordance with National Institutes of Health guidelines and approved by Yale Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) protocol (#2017-11141). Animals are treated in compliance with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Yale University School of Medicine. All surgery was performed under isoflurane anesthesia (>P4) or ice anesthesia (<P4)., and every effort made to minimize suffering.
- Sacha B Nelson, Brandeis University, United States
© 2020, Hamodi et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The hippocampus executes crucial functions from declarative memory to adaptive behaviors associated with cognition and emotion. However, the mechanisms of how morphogenesis and functions along the hippocampal dorsoventral axis are differentiated and integrated are still largely unclear. Here, we show that Nr2f1 and Nr2f2 genes are distinctively expressed in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, respectively. The loss of Nr2f2 results in ectopic CA1/CA3 domains in the ventral hippocampus. The deficiency of Nr2f1 leads to the failed specification of dorsal CA1, among which there are place cells. The deletion of both Nr2f genes causes almost agenesis of the hippocampus with abnormalities of trisynaptic circuit and adult neurogenesis. Moreover, Nr2f1/2 may cooperate to guarantee appropriate morphogenesis and function of the hippocampus by regulating the Lhx5-Lhx2 axis. Our findings revealed a novel mechanism that Nr2f1 and Nr2f2 converge to govern the differentiation and integration of distinct characteristics of the hippocampus in mice.
Gene expression has been employed for homologizing body regions across bilateria. The molecular comparison of vertebrate and fly brains has led to a number of disputed homology hypotheses. Data from the fly Drosophila melanogaster have recently been complemented by extensive data from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum with its more insect-typical development. In this review, we revisit the molecular mapping of the neuroectoderm of insects and vertebrates to reconsider homology hypotheses. We claim that the protocerebrum is non-segmental and homologous to the vertebrate fore- and midbrain. The boundary between antennal and ocular regions correspond to the vertebrate mid-hindbrain boundary while the deutocerebrum represents the anterior-most ganglion with serial homology to the trunk. The insect head placode is shares common embryonic origin with the vertebrate adenohypophyseal placode. Intriguingly, vertebrate eyes develop from a different region compared to the insect compound eyes calling organ homology into question. Finally, we suggest a molecular re-definition of the classic concepts of archi- and prosocerebrum.