AMPARs control fast synaptic communication between neurons and their function relies on auxiliary subunits, which importantly modulate channel properties. Although it has been suggested that AMPARs can bind to TARPs with variable stoichiometry, little is known about the effect that this stoichiometry exerts on certain AMPAR properties. Here we have found that AMPARs show a clear stoichiometry-dependent modulation by the prototypical TARP γ2 although the receptor still needs to be fully saturated with γ2 to show some typical TARP-induced characteristics (i.e. an increase in channel conductance). We also uncovered important differences in the stoichiometric modulation between calcium-permeable and calcium-impermeable AMPARs. Moreover, in heteromeric AMPARs, γ2 positioning in the complex is important to exert certain TARP-dependent features. Finally, by comparing data from recombinant receptors with endogenous AMPAR currents from mouse cerebellar granule cells, we have determined a likely presence of two γ2 molecules at somatic receptors in this cell type.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for all Figures.
- David Soto
- Xavier Gasull
- Xavier Gasull
- Xavier Gasull
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: The authors state that the animals used in this study were sacrificed following the guidelines of CEEA-UB (Ethical Committee for Animal Research) from University of Barcelona with the license number OB117/16, of which Dr. David Soto is the responsible principal investigator.
- Inna Slutsky, Tel Aviv University, Israel
© 2020, Miguez-Cabello et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Two epigenetic pathways of transcriptional repression, DNA methylation and Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) are known to regulate neuronal development and function. However, their respective contributions to brain maturation are unknown. We found that conditional loss of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a in mouse excitatory neurons altered expression of synapse-related genes, stunted synapse maturation, and impaired working memory and social interest. At the genomic level, loss of Dnmt3a abolished postnatal accumulation of CG and non-CG DNA methylation, leaving adult neurons with an unmethylated, fetal-like epigenomic pattern at ~222,000 genomic regions. The PRC2-associated histone modification, H3K27me3, increased at many of these sites. Our data support a dynamic interaction between two fundamental modes of epigenetic repression during postnatal maturation of excitatory neurons, which together confer robustness on neuronal regulation.
Sympathetic denervation of the heart following ischemia/reperfusion induced myocardial infarction (MI) is sustained by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the cardiac scar. Denervation predicts risk of sudden cardiac death in humans. Blocking CSPG signaling restores sympathetic axon outgrowth into the cardiac scar, decreasing arrhythmia susceptibility. Axon growth inhibition by CSPGs is thought to depend on the sulfation status of the glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) attached to the core protein. Tandem sulfation of CS-GAGs at the 4th (4S) and 6th (6S) positions of n-acetyl-galactosamine inhibits outgrowth in several types of neurons within the central nervous system, but it is not known if sulfation is similarly critical during peripheral nerve regeneration. We asked if CSPG sulfation prevented sympathetic axon outgrowth. Neurite outgrowth of dissociated rat sympathetic neurons across purified CSPGs is restored in vitro by reducing 4S with the 4-sulfatase enzyme Arylsulfatase-B (ARSB). Additionally, we co-cultured mouse cardiac scar tissue with mouse sympathetic ganglia ex vivo and found that reducing 4S with ARSB restored axon outgrowth to control levels. We examined levels of the enzymes responsible for adding and removing sulfation to CS-GAGs by western blot to determine if they were altered in the left ventricle after MI. We found that CHST15 (4S dependent 6-sulfotransferase) was upregulated, and ARSB was downregulated after MI. Increased CHST15 combined with decreased ARSB suggests a mechanism for production and maintenance of sulfated CSPGs in the cardiac scar. We altered tandem sulfated 4S,6S CS-GAGs in vivo by transient siRNA knockdown of Chst15 and found that reducing 4S,6S restored Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) positive sympathetic nerve fibers in the cardiac scar and reduced arrhythmias using a mouse model of MI. Overall, our results suggest that modulating CSPG-sulfation after MI may be a therapeutic target to promote sympathetic nerve regeneration in the cardiac scar and reduce post-MI cardiac arrhythmias.