1. Neuroscience
Download icon

Attention-related modulation of caudate neurons depends on superior colliculus activity

  1. James P Herman  Is a corresponding author
  2. Fabrice Arcizet
  3. Richard J Krauzlis
  1. National Eye Institute, United States
  2. Institut de la Vision, France
Research Article
  • Cited 3
  • Views 1,098
  • Annotations
Cite this article as: eLife 2020;9:e53998 doi: 10.7554/eLife.53998

Abstract

Recent work has implicated the primate basal ganglia in visual perception and attention, in addition to their traditional role in motor control. The basal ganglia, especially the caudate nucleus 'head' (CDh) of the striatum, receive indirect anatomical connections from the superior colliculus, a midbrain structure that is known to play a crucial role in the control of visual attention. To test the possible functional relationship between these subcortical structures, we recorded CDh neuronal activity of macaque monkeys before and during unilateral superior colliculus (SC) inactivation in a spatial attention task. SC inactivation significantly altered the attention-related modulation of CDh neurons and strongly impaired the classification of task epochs based on CDh activity. Only inactivation of SC on the same side of the brain as recorded CDh neurons, not the opposite side, had these effects. These results demonstrate a novel interaction between SC activity and attention-related visual processing in the basal ganglia.

Data availability

Data for the main figures are available via Dryad (doi:10.5061/dryad.xd2547dcx).

The following data sets were generated

Article and author information

Author details

  1. James P Herman

    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, United States
    For correspondence
    james.herman@nih.gov
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0001-6916-2807
  2. Fabrice Arcizet

    Visual information processing, Institut de la Vision, Paris, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Richard J Krauzlis

    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

Funding

National Eye Institute (1ZIAEY000511)

  • Richard J Krauzlis

European Research Council SYNERGY Grant scheme (610110)

  • Fabrice Arcizet

RHU LIGHT4DEAF (ANR-15-RHU-0001)

  • Fabrice Arcizet

LABEX LIFESENSES (ANR-10-LABX-65)

  • Fabrice Arcizet

IHU FOReSIGHT (ANR-15-RHU-0001)

  • Fabrice Arcizet

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: All experimental protocols (#NEI-649) were approved by the National Eye Institute Animal Care and Use Committee, and all procedures were performed in accordance with the United States Public Health Service policy on the humane care and use of laboratory animals.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Naoshige Uchida, Harvard University, United States

Publication history

  1. Received: November 27, 2019
  2. Accepted: August 26, 2020
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: September 17, 2020 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: October 8, 2020 (version 2)

Copyright

This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Metrics

  • 1,098
    Page views
  • 201
    Downloads
  • 3
    Citations

Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)

Further reading

    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    Johannes Elferich et al.
    Research Article Updated

    Mechanosensory transduction (MT), the conversion of mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, underpins hearing and balance and is carried out within hair cells in the inner ear. Hair cells harbor actin-filled stereocilia, arranged in rows of descending heights, where the tips of stereocilia are connected to their taller neighbors by a filament composed of protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) and cadherin 23 (CDH23), deemed the ‘tip link.’ Tension exerted on the tip link opens an ion channel at the tip of the shorter stereocilia, thus converting mechanical force into an electrical signal. While biochemical and structural studies have provided insights into the molecular composition and structure of isolated portions of the tip link, the architecture, location, and conformational states of intact tip links, on stereocilia, remains unknown. Here, we report in situ cryo-electron microscopy imaging of the tip link in mouse stereocilia. We observe individual PCDH15 molecules at the tip and shaft of stereocilia and determine their stoichiometry, conformational heterogeneity, and their complexes with other filamentous proteins, perhaps including CDH23. The PCDH15 complexes occur in clusters, frequently with more than one copy of PCDH15 at the tip of stereocilia, suggesting that tip links might consist of more than one copy of PCDH15 complexes and, by extension, might include multiple MT complexes.

    1. Neuroscience
    Thomas Akam et al.
    Research Article

    Laboratory behavioural tasks are an essential research tool. As questions asked of behaviour and brain activity become more sophisticated, the ability to specify and run richly structured tasks becomes more important. An increasing focus on reproducibility also necessitates accurate communication of task logic to other researchers. To these ends, we developed pyControl, a system of open-source hardware and software for controlling behavioural experiments comprising a simple yet flexible Python-based syntax for specifying tasks as extended state machines, hardware modules for building behavioural setups, and a graphical user interface designed for efficiently running high-throughput experiments on many setups in parallel, all with extensive online documentation. These tools make it quicker, easier, and cheaper to implement rich behavioural tasks at scale. As important, pyControl facilitates communication and reproducibility of behavioural experiments through a highly readable task definition syntax and self-documenting features. Here, we outline the system’s design and rationale, present validation experiments characterising system performance, and demonstrate example applications in freely moving and head-fixed mouse behaviour.