Weight loss and anorexia are common symptoms in cancer patients that occur prior to initiation of cancer therapy. Inflammation in the brain is a driver of these symptoms, yet cellular sources of neuroinflammation during malignancy are unknown. In a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we observed early and robust myeloid cell infiltration into the brain. Infiltrating immune cells were predominately neutrophils, which accumulated at a unique central nervous system entry portal called the velum interpositum, where they expressed CCR2. Pharmacologic CCR2 blockade and genetic deletion of Ccr2 both resulted in significantly decreased brain-infiltrating myeloid cells as well as attenuated cachexia during PDAC. Lastly, intracerebroventricular blockade of the purinergic receptor P2RX7 during PDAC abolished immune cell recruitment to the brain and attenuated anorexia. Our data demonstrate a novel function for the CCR2/CCL2 axis in recruiting neutrophils to the brain, which drives anorexia and muscle catabolism.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE15006
The transcriptional profile of neutrophils in different organs during pancreatic cancerNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE150061.
- Daniel L Marks
- Daniel L Marks
- Daniel L Marks
- Kevin Glenn Burfeind
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols of Oregon Health & Science University. The protocol was approved by the Department of Comparative Medicine of Oregon Health & Science University (protocol IP00038). All surgery was performed under isofluorane anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Yuting Ma, Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine, China
© 2020, Burfeind et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
T cells are crucial for efficient antigen-specific immune responses and thus their migration within the body, to inflamed tissues from circulating blood or to secondary lymphoid organs, plays a very critical role. T cell extravasation in inflamed tissues depends on chemotactic cues and interaction between endothelial adhesion molecules and cellular integrins. A migrating T cell is expected to sense diverse external and membrane-intrinsic mechano-physical cues, but molecular mechanisms of such mechanosensing in cell migration are not established. We explored if the professional mechanosensor Piezo1 plays any role during integrin-dependent chemotaxis of human T cells. We found that deficiency of Piezo1 in human T cells interfered with integrin-dependent cellular motility on ICAM-1-coated surface. Piezo1 recruitment at the leading edge of moving T cells is dependent on and follows focal adhesion formation at the leading edge and local increase in membrane tension upon chemokine receptor activation. Piezo1 recruitment and activation, followed by calcium influx and calpain activation, in turn, are crucial for the integrin LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) recruitment at the leading edge of the chemotactic human T cells. Thus, we find that Piezo1 activation in response to local mechanical cues constitutes a membrane-intrinsic component of the ‘outside-in’ signaling in human T cells, migrating in response to chemokines, that mediates integrin recruitment to the leading edge.
CD4 T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are essential for establishing serological memory and have distinct helper attributes that impact both the quantity and quality of the antibody response. Insights into Tfh subsets that promote antibody persistence and functional capacity can critically inform vaccine design. Based on the Tfh profiles evoked by the live attenuated measles virus vaccine, renowned for its ability to establish durable humoral immunity, we investigated the potential of a Tfh1/17 recall response during the boost phase to enhance persistence of HIV-1 Envelope (Env) antibodies in rhesus macaques. Using a DNA-prime encoding gp160 antigen and Tfh polarizing cytokines (interferon protein-10 (IP-10) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), followed by a gp140 protein boost formulated in a cationic liposome-based adjuvant (CAF01), we successfully generated germinal center (GC) Tfh1/17 cells. In contrast, a similar DNA-prime (including IP-10) followed by gp140 formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) +QS-21 adjuvant predominantly induced GC Tfh1 cells. While the generation of GC Tfh1/17 cells with CAF01 and GC Tfh1 cells with MPLA +QS-21 induced comparable peak Env antibodies, the latter group demonstrated significantly greater antibody concentrations at week 8 after final immunization which persisted up to 30 weeks (gp140 IgG ng/ml- MPLA; 5500; CAF01, 2155; p<0.05). Notably, interferon γ+Env-specific Tfh responses were consistently higher with gp140 in MPLA +QS-21 and positively correlated with Env antibody persistence. These findings suggest that vaccine platforms maximizing GC Tfh1 induction promote persistent Env antibodies, important for protective immunity against HIV.