Weight loss and anorexia are common symptoms in cancer patients that occur prior to initiation of cancer therapy. Inflammation in the brain is a driver of these symptoms, yet cellular sources of neuroinflammation during malignancy are unknown. In a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we observed early and robust myeloid cell infiltration into the brain. Infiltrating immune cells were predominately neutrophils, which accumulated at a unique central nervous system entry portal called the velum interpositum, where they expressed CCR2. Pharmacologic CCR2 blockade and genetic deletion of Ccr2 both resulted in significantly decreased brain-infiltrating myeloid cells as well as attenuated cachexia during PDAC. Lastly, intracerebroventricular blockade of the purinergic receptor P2RX7 during PDAC abolished immune cell recruitment to the brain and attenuated anorexia. Our data demonstrate a novel function for the CCR2/CCL2 axis in recruiting neutrophils to the brain, which drives anorexia and muscle catabolism.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE15006
The transcriptional profile of neutrophils in different organs during pancreatic cancerNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE150061.
- Daniel L Marks
- Daniel L Marks
- Daniel L Marks
- Kevin Glenn Burfeind
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols of Oregon Health & Science University. The protocol was approved by the Department of Comparative Medicine of Oregon Health & Science University (protocol IP00038). All surgery was performed under isofluorane anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Yuting Ma, Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine, China
© 2020, Burfeind et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
A new study sheds light on how SARS-CoV-2 influences the way natural killer cells can recognize and kill infected cells.
Staphylococcus aureus infections pose a potential threat to livestock production and public health. A novel strategy is needed to control S. aureus infections due to its adaptive evolution to antibiotics. Autophagy plays a key role in degrading bacteria for innate immune cells. In order to promote S. aureus clearance via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced autophagy pathway, the domain fusion TLR2-4 with the extracellular domain of TLR2, specific recognizing S. aureus, and transmembrane and intracellular domains of TLR4 is assembled, then the goat expressing TLR2-4 is generated. TLR2-4 substantially augments the removal of S. aureus within macrophages by elevating autophagy level. Phosphorylated JNK and ERK1/2 promote LC3-puncta in TLR2-4 macrophages during S. aureus-induced autophagy via MyD88 mediated the TAK1 signaling cascade. Meantime, the TRIF-dependent TBK1-TFEB-OPTN signaling is involved in TLR2-4-triggered autophagy after S. aureus challenge. Moreover, the transcript of ATG5 and ATG12 is significantly increased via cAMP-PKA-NF-κB signaling, which facilitates S. aureus-induced autophagy in TLR2-4 macrophages. Overall, the novel receptor TLR2-4 enhances the autophagy-dependent clearance of S. aureus in macrophages via TAK1/TBK1-JNK/ERK, TBK1-TFEB-OPTN, and cAMP-PKA-NF-κB-ATGs signaling pathways, which provide an alternative approach for resistant against S. aureus infection.