Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite, undergoes a complex and poorly understood developmental process that is critical for establishing a chronic infection in its intermediate hosts. Here, we applied single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) on >5,400 Toxoplasma in both tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages using three widely studied strains to construct a comprehensive atlas of cell-cycle and asexual development, revealing hidden states and transcriptional factors associated with each developmental stage. Analysis of SAG1-related sequence (SRS) antigenic repertoire reveals a highly heterogeneous, sporadic expression pattern unexplained by measurement noise, cell cycle, or asexual development. Furthermore, we identified AP2IX-1 as a transcription factor that controls the switching from the ubiquitous SAG1 to rare surface antigens not previously observed in tachyzoites. In addition, comparative analysis between Toxoplasma and Plasmodium scRNA-seq results reveals concerted expression of gene sets, despite fundamental differences in cell division. Lastly, we built an interactive data-browser for visualization of our atlas resource.
- Yuan Xue
- Terence C Theisen
- Suchita Rastogi
- Abel Ferrel
- Abel Ferrel
- John C Boothroyd
- John C Boothroyd
- Stephen R Quake
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Dominique Soldati-Favre, University of Geneva, Switzerland
© 2020, Xue et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
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Heat shock induces a conserved transcriptional program regulated by heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) in eukaryotic cells. Activation of this heat shock response is triggered by heat-induced misfolding of newly synthesized polypeptides, and so has been thought to depend on ongoing protein synthesis. Here, using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we report the discovery that Hsf1 can be robustly activated when protein synthesis is inhibited, so long as cells undergo cytosolic acidification. Heat shock has long been known to cause transient intracellular acidification which, for reasons which have remained unclear, is associated with increased stress resistance in eukaryotes. We demonstrate that acidification is required for heat shock response induction in translationally inhibited cells, and specifically affects Hsf1 activation. Physiological heat-triggered acidification also increases population fitness and promotes cell cycle reentry following heat shock. Our results uncover a previously unknown adaptive dimension of the well-studied eukaryotic heat shock response.
How cells adjust nutrient transport across their membranes is incompletely understood. Previously, we have shown that S. cerevisiae broadly re-configures the nutrient transporters at the plasma membrane in response to amino acid availability, through endocytosis of sugar- and amino acid transporters (AATs) (Müller et al., 2015). A genome-wide screen now revealed that the selective endocytosis of four AATs during starvation required the α-arrestin family protein Art2/Ecm21, an adaptor for the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, and its induction through the general amino acid control pathway. Art2 uses a basic patch to recognize C-terminal acidic sorting motifs in AATs and thereby instructs Rsp5 to ubiquitinate proximal lysine residues. When amino acids are in excess, Rsp5 instead uses TORC1-activated Art1 to detect N-terminal acidic sorting motifs within the same AATs, which initiates exclusive substrate-induced endocytosis. Thus, amino acid excess or starvation activate complementary α-arrestin-Rsp5-complexes to control selective endocytosis and adapt nutrient acquisition.