Advances in DNA sequencing have revolutionized our ability to read genomes. However, even in the most well-studied of organisms, the bacterium Escherichia coli, for ≈ 65% of promoters we remain ignorant of their regulation. Until we crack this regulatory Rosetta Stone, efforts to read and write genomes will remain haphazard. We introduce a new method, Reg-Seq, that links massively-parallel reporter assays with mass spectrometry to produce a base pair resolution dissection of more than 100 E. coli promoters in 12 growth conditions. We demonstrate that the method recapitulates known regulatory information. Then, we examine regulatory architectures for more than 80 promoters which previously had no known regulatory information. In many cases, we also identify which transcription factors mediate their regulation. This method clears a path for highly multiplexed investigations of the regulatory genome of model organisms, with the potential of moving to an array of microbes of ecological and medical relevance.
Sequencing data has been deposited in the SRA under accession no.PRJNA599253 and PRJNA603368Mass spectrometry data is deposited in the CalTech data repository at doi:10.22002/d1.1336Model files and inferred information footprints are deposited in the CalTech data repository at doi:10.22002/D1.1331Processed sequencing data sets and analysis software are available in the GitHub repository available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3953312
- Rob Phillips
- Suzannah M Beeler
- Rob Phillips
- Nathan M Belliveau
- Annie Moradian
- Michael J Sweredoski
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Armita Nourmohammad, University of Washington, United States
© 2020, Ireland et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Naturally occurring body movements and collective neural activity both exhibit complex dynamics, often with scale-free, fractal spatiotemporal structure. Scale-free dynamics of both brain and behavior are important because each is associated with functional benefits to the organism. Despite their similarities, scale-free brain activity and scale-free behavior have been studied separately, without a unified explanation. Here we show that scale-free dynamics of mouse behavior and neurons in visual cortex are strongly related. Surprisingly, the scale-free neural activity is limited to specific subsets of neurons, and these scale-free subsets exhibit stochastic winner-take-all competition with other neural subsets. This observation is inconsistent with prevailing theories of scale-free dynamics in neural systems, which stem from the criticality hypothesis. We develop a computational model which incorporates known cell-type-specific circuit structure, explaining our findings with a new type of critical dynamics. Our results establish neural underpinnings of scale-free behavior and clear behavioral relevance of scale-free neural activity.
Motile cilia are hair-like cell extensions that beat periodically to generate fluid flow along various epithelial tissues within the body. In dense multiciliated carpets, cilia were shown to exhibit a remarkable coordination of their beat in the form of traveling metachronal waves, a phenomenon which supposedly enhances fluid transport. Yet, how cilia coordinate their regular beat in multiciliated epithelia to move fluids remains insufficiently understood, particularly due to lack of rigorous quantification. We combine experiments, novel analysis tools, and theory to address this knowledge gap. To investigate collective dynamics of cilia, we studied zebrafish multiciliated epithelia in the nose and the brain. We focused mainly on the zebrafish nose, due to its conserved properties with other ciliated tissues and its superior accessibility for non-invasive imaging. We revealed that cilia are synchronized only locally and that the size of local synchronization domains increases with the viscosity of the surrounding medium. Even though synchronization is local only, we observed global patterns of traveling metachronal waves across the zebrafish multiciliated epithelium. Intriguingly, these global wave direction patterns are conserved across individual fish, but different for left and right nose, unveiling a chiral asymmetry of metachronal coordination. To understand the implications of synchronization for fluid pumping, we used a computational model of a regular array of cilia. We found that local metachronal synchronization prevents steric collisions, cilia colliding with each other, and improves fluid pumping in dense cilia carpets, but hardly affects the direction of fluid flow. In conclusion, we show that local synchronization together with tissue-scale cilia alignment coincide and generate metachronal wave patterns in multiciliated epithelia, which enhance their physiological function of fluid pumping.