An adipokine feedback regulating diurnal food intake rhythms in mice

Abstract

Endogenous circadian clocks have evolved to anticipate 24-hour rhythms in environmental demands. Recent studies suggest that circadian rhythm disruption is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders in humans. Conversely, alterations in energy state can disrupt circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology, creating a vicious circle of metabolic dysfunction. How peripheral energy state affects diurnal food intake, however, is still poorly understood. We here show that the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ) regulates diurnal feeding rhythms through clocks in energy regulatory centers of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Adipoq-deficient mice show increased rest phase food intake associated with disrupted transcript rhythms of clock and appetite-regulating genes in the MBH. ADIPOQ regulates MBH clocks via AdipoR1-mediated upregulation of the core clock gene Bmal1. BMAL1, in turn, controls expression of orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the MBH. Together, these data reveal a systemic metabolic circuit to regulate central circadian clocks and energy intake.

Data availability

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for Figures 1 to 8.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Anthony H Tsang

    Institute of Neurobiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  2. Christiane E Koch

    Institute of Neurobiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Jana-Thabea Kiehn

    Institute of Neurobiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Cosima X Schmidt

    Institute of Neurobiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  5. Henrik Oster

    Institute of Neurobiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
    For correspondence
    henrik.oster@uni-luebeck.de
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-1414-7068

Funding

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (GRK-1957)

  • Henrik Oster

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (OS353-7/1)

  • Henrik Oster

Volkswagen Foundation (Lichtenberg Professorship)

  • Henrik Oster

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (OS353-10/1)

  • Henrik Oster

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: All animal experiments were done after ethical assessment by the institutional animal welfare committee and licensed by the Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety of the State of Lower Saxony (33.12.42502-04-12/0893, 33.14-42502-04-11/0604 and 33.9-42502-04-12/0748) or the Ministry of Agriculture of the State of Schleswig-Holstein (V 242-7224.122-4 (132-10/13)) in accordance with the German Law of Animal Welfare (TierSchG).

Reviewing Editor

  1. Amita Sehgal, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania, United States

Publication history

  1. Received: January 23, 2020
  2. Accepted: July 8, 2020
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: July 9, 2020 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: July 22, 2020 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2020, Tsang et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

Metrics

  • 1,425
    Page views
  • 276
    Downloads
  • 11
    Citations

Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)

Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

  1. Anthony H Tsang
  2. Christiane E Koch
  3. Jana-Thabea Kiehn
  4. Cosima X Schmidt
  5. Henrik Oster
(2020)
An adipokine feedback regulating diurnal food intake rhythms in mice
eLife 9:e55388.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55388

Further reading

    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics
    Yi Feng, Rafik Neme ... Laura F Landweber
    Research Article

    Ciliates are microbial eukaryotes that undergo extensive programmed genome rearrangement, a natural genome editing process that converts long germline chromosomes into smaller gene-rich somatic chromosomes. Three well-studied ciliates include Oxytricha trifallax, Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia, but only the Oxytricha lineage has a massively scrambled genome, whose assembly during development requires hundreds of thousands of precise programmed DNA joining events, representing the most complex genome dynamics of any known organism. Here we study the emergence of such complex genomes by examining the origin and evolution of discontinuous and scrambled genes in the Oxytricha lineage. This study compares six genomes from three species, the germline and somatic genomes for Euplotes woodruffi, Tetmemena sp., and the model ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. To complement existing data, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the germline and somatic genomes of Euplotes woodruffi, which provides an outgroup, and the germline genome of Tetmemena sp.. We find that the germline genome of Tetmemena is as massively scrambled and interrupted as Oxytricha's : 13.6% of its gene loci require programmed translocations and/or inversions, with some genes requiring hundreds of precise gene editing events during development. This study revealed that the earlier-diverged spirotrich, E. woodruffi, also has a scrambled genome, but only roughly half as many loci (7.3%) are scrambled. Furthermore, its scrambled genes are less complex, together supporting the position of Euplotes as a possible evolutionary intermediate in this lineage, in the process of accumulating complex evolutionary genome rearrangements, all of which require extensive repair to assemble functional coding regions. Comparative analysis also reveals that scrambled loci are often associated with local duplications, supporting a gradual model for the origin of complex, scrambled genomes via many small events of DNA duplication and decay.

    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics
    Joseph V Geisberg, Zarmik Moqtaderi ... Kevin Struhl
    Research Advance

    Alternative polyadenylation yields many mRNA isoforms whose 3' termini occur disproportionately in clusters within 3' UTRs. Previously, we showed that profiles of poly(A) site usage are regulated by the rate of transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II (Geisberg et., 2020). Pol II derivatives with slow elongation rates confer an upstream-shifted poly(A) profile, whereas fast Pol II strains confer a downstream-shifted poly(A) profile. Within yeast isoform clusters, these shifts occur steadily from one isoform to the next across nucleotide distances. In contrast, the shift between clusters from the last isoform of one cluster to the first isoform of the next - is much less pronounced, even over large distances. GC content in a region 13-30 nt downstream from isoform clusters correlates with their sensitivity to Pol II elongation rate. In human cells, the upstream shift caused by a slow Pol II mutant also occurs continuously at the nucleotide level within clusters, but not between them. Pol II occupancy increases just downstream of the most speed-sensitive poly(A) sites, suggesting a linkage between reduced elongation rate and cluster formation. These observations suggest that 1) Pol II elongation speed affects the nucleotide-level dwell time allowing polyadenylation to occur, 2) poly(A) site clusters are linked to the local elongation rate and hence do not arise simply by intrinsically imprecise cleavage and polyadenylation of the RNA substrate, 3) DNA sequence elements can affect Pol II elongation and poly(A) profiles, and 4) the cleavage/polyadenylation and Pol II elongation complexes are spatially, and perhaps physically, coupled so that polyadenylation occurs rapidly upon emergence of the nascent RNA from the Pol II elongation complex.