Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious global health concern, many individuals live with TBI-related neurological dysfunction. A lack of biomarkers of TBI has impeded medication development. To identify new potential biomarkers, we time-dependently evaluated mouse brain tissue and neuronally derived plasma extracellular vesicle proteins in a mild model of TBI with parallels to concussive head injury. Mice (CD-1, 30–40 g) received a sham procedure or 30 g weight-drop, and were euthanized 8, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours, 7, 14 and 30 days later. We quantified ipsilateral cortical proteins, many of which differed from sham by 8 hours post-mTBI, particularly GAS-1 and VEGF-B were increased while CXCL16 reduced, 23 proteins changed in 4 or more of the time points. Gene ontology pathways mapped from altered proteins over time related to pathological and physiological processes. Validation of proteins identified in this study may provide utility as treatment response biomarkers.
All data generated by US NIH funded research is available to the public, the data generated in this study is available to the public. The data used to generate the Figures in the manuscript are provided as source data files.
- Nigel H Greig
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: AlI animal studies were conducted at the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD, USA. Experimental animal protocols were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging (438-TGB-2022) and were in compliance with the guidelines for animal experimentation of the National Research Council (Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 2011) and the National Institutes of Health (DHEW publication 85-23, revised, 1995).
- Brandon K Harvey, NIDA/NIH, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Notch-RBP-J signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of myeloid homeostasis. However, its role in monocyte cell fate decisions is not fully understood. Here, we showed that conditional deletion of transcription factor RBP-J in myeloid cells resulted in marked accumulation of blood Ly6Clo monocytes that highly expressed chemokine receptor CCR2. Bone marrow transplantation and parabiosis experiments revealed a cell-intrinsic requirement of RBP-J for controlling blood Ly6CloCCR2hi monocytes. RBP-J-deficient Ly6Clo monocytes exhibited enhanced capacity competing with wildtype counterparts in blood circulation. In accordance with alterations of circulating monocytes, RBP-J deficiency led to markedly increased population of lung tissues with Ly6Clo monocytes and CD16.2+ interstitial macrophages. Furthermore, RBP-J deficiency-associated phenotypes could be genetically corrected by further deleting Ccr2 in myeloid cells. These results demonstrate that RBP-J functions as a crucial regulator of blood Ly6Clo monocytes and thus derived lung-resident myeloid populations, at least in part through regulation of CCR2.
T cells are crucial for efficient antigen-specific immune responses and thus their migration within the body, to inflamed tissues from circulating blood or to secondary lymphoid organs, plays a very critical role. T cell extravasation in inflamed tissues depends on chemotactic cues and interaction between endothelial adhesion molecules and cellular integrins. A migrating T cell is expected to sense diverse external and membrane-intrinsic mechano-physical cues, but molecular mechanisms of such mechanosensing in cell migration are not established. We explored if the professional mechanosensor Piezo1 plays any role during integrin-dependent chemotaxis of human T cells. We found that deficiency of Piezo1 in human T cells interfered with integrin-dependent cellular motility on ICAM-1-coated surface. Piezo1 recruitment at the leading edge of moving T cells is dependent on and follows focal adhesion formation at the leading edge and local increase in membrane tension upon chemokine receptor activation. Piezo1 recruitment and activation, followed by calcium influx and calpain activation, in turn, are crucial for the integrin LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) recruitment at the leading edge of the chemotactic human T cells. Thus, we find that Piezo1 activation in response to local mechanical cues constitutes a membrane-intrinsic component of the ‘outside-in’ signaling in human T cells, migrating in response to chemokines, that mediates integrin recruitment to the leading edge.