(A) Diagram of stimulus and data analysis protocol (B) dF/F calcium fluorescence traces of neurons (red traces) in an example experiment from the Allen Brain Observatory. Mean activity is shown in black, and the population coupling of each neuron is indicated by its colour changing from light to dark red with increased population coupling. (C) The population coupling distribution of all neurons across all experiments (black, 64 experiments, 15,281 neurons) and in simulations (gray, 15 experiments, 3750 neurons). (D) Absolute difference in preferred orientation (black, static gratings, ) and preferred direction (gray, drifting gratings, ) between the beginning and the end of the recording session. (E) (left, black, static gratings) and (right, gray, drifting gratings) are correlated with population coupling. Data shown for all neurons with reliable stimulus responses across all experiments, binned by population coupling. Error bars for each bin show 95% confidence interval. Linear regression fit for all datapoints (shaded gray area indicates 95% confidence interval). (F) Distribution of ratios of the mean population coupling of neurons that change their preferred orientation () or preferred direction () versus mean population coupling of neurons that conserve their preferred orientation () or preferred directions (), for each individual static grating experiment (black), drifting grating (gray) experiment, or network simulation (light gray). Dashed vertical line indicates expected value if a neuron’s orientation or direction preference variability is not dependent on its population coupling (*** p<0.001, one sample t-test).