Adipocytes arise from distinct progenitor populations during development and adult, but little is known about how developmental progenitors differ from adult progenitors. Here, we investigate the role of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) in the divergent regulation of the two different adipose progenitor cells (APCs). Using in vivo adipose lineage tracking and deletion mouse models, we found that developmental PDGFRα+ cells are adipogenic and differentiated into mature adipocytes, and the deletion of Pdgfra in developmental adipose lineage disrupted white adipose tissue (WAT) formation. Interestingly, adult PDGFRα+ cells do not significantly contribute to adult adipogenesis, and deleting Pdgfra in adult adipose lineage did not affect WAT homeostasis. Mechanistically, embryonic APCs require PDGFRα for fate maintenance, and without PDGFRα, they underwent fate change from adipogenic to fibrotic lineage. Collectively, our findings indicate that PDGFRα+ cells and Pdgfra gene itself are differentially required for WAT development and adult WAT homeostasis.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Yuwei Jiang
- Yuwei Jiang
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#18-184) of the University of Illinois at Chicago. The protocol was reviewed in accordance with the Animal Care Policies and Procedures of the University of Illinois at Chicago and renewed on 10/16/2019. All experimental animals will be euthanized by carbon dioxide gas inhalation in accordance with the guidelines of the American Veterinary Medical Association and the policies of the UIC IACUC.
- Valerie Horsley, Yale University, United States
© 2020, Shin et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The ATPase p97 (also known as VCP, Cdc48) has crucial functions in a variety of important cellular processes such as protein quality control, organellar homeostasis, and DNA damage repair, and its de-regulation is linked to neuromuscular diseases and cancer. p97 is tightly controlled by numerous regulatory cofactors, but the full range and function of the p97–cofactor network is unknown. Here, we identify the hitherto uncharacterized FAM104 proteins as a conserved family of p97 interactors. The two human family members VCP nuclear cofactor family member 1 and 2 (VCF1/2) bind p97 directly via a novel, alpha-helical motif and associate with p97-UFD1-NPL4 and p97-UBXN2B complexes in cells. VCF1/2 localize to the nucleus and promote the nuclear import of p97. Loss of VCF1/2 results in reduced nuclear p97 levels, slow growth, and hypersensitivity to chemical inhibition of p97 in the absence and presence of DNA damage, suggesting that FAM104 proteins are critical regulators of nuclear p97 functions.
The amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ brains contain collagens and are embedded extracellularly. Several collagens have been proposed to influence Aβ aggregate formation, yet their role in clearance is unknown. To investigate the potential role of collagens in forming and clearance of extracellular aggregates in vivo, we created a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain that expresses and secretes human Aβ1-42. This secreted Aβ forms aggregates in two distinct places within the extracellular matrix. In a screen for extracellular human Aβ aggregation regulators, we identified different collagens to ameliorate or potentiate Aβ aggregation. We show that a disintegrin and metalloprotease a disintegrin and metalloprotease 2 (ADM-2), an ortholog of ADAM9, reduces the load of extracellular Aβ aggregates. ADM-2 is required and sufficient to remove the extracellular Aβ aggregates. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence of collagens essential for aggregate formation and metalloprotease participating in extracellular Aβ aggregate removal.