Dot plots showing the detection efficiency (with lines indicating the mean and 95% confidence intervals from 100 simulations) for resistance variants RplD G70D (A–B), 23S rRNA C2611T (C–D), and penA XXXIV (E–F) in datasets 1 and 2. In datasets 1 and 2, targeted sampling was informed by demographic (gender and sexual behavior) and anatomical site of isolate collection (niche) information (A, C, and E), and in datasets 3 and 4, targeted sampling was informed by country or prefecture of sample collection (B, D, and F). Dot colors indicate the sampling approach, and asterisks indicate a significant difference (p<0.05 by Mann-Whitney U test) in detection efficiency between the demography-, niche- or geography-aware approach compared to random sampling (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001; red asterisks indicate significantly lower detection efficiency of demography- or geography-aware approaches compared to random sampling). Note that sampling simulations were not performed for RplD G70D in datasets 1 and 4 or for penA XXXIV in dataset 3 as prevalence of the variants in these datasets was >10%. n.s., not significant at α = 0.05; M, men; W, women; MSM, men who have sex with men; MSW, men who have sex with women; WSM, women who have sex with men.