PKD2 (polycystin-2, TRPP1), a TRP polycystin channel, is expressed in endothelial cells (ECs), but its physiological functions in this cell type are unclear. Here, we generated inducible, EC-specific Pkd2 knockout mice to examine vascular functions of PKD2. Data show that a broad range of intravascular flow rates stimulate EC PKD2 channels, producing vasodilation. Flow-mediated PKD2 channel activation leads to calcium influx that activates SK/IK channels and eNOS serine 1176 phosphorylation in ECs. These signaling mechanisms produce arterial hyperpolarization and vasodilation. In contrast, EC PKD2 channels do not contribute to acetylcholine-induced vasodilation, suggesting stimulus-specific function. EC-specific PKD2 knockout elevated blood pressure in mice without altering cardiac function or kidney anatomy. These data demonstrate that flow stimulates PKD2 channels in ECs, leading to SK/IK channel and eNOS activation, hyperpolarization, vasodilation and a reduction in systemic blood pressure. Thus, PKD2 channels are a major component of functional flow sensing in the vasculature.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Jonathan H Jaggar
- Jonathan H Jaggar
- Simon Bulley
- M Dennis Leo
- Charles E MacKay
- Raquibul Hasan
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All procedures were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Tennessee (protocol 17-068.0).
- Mark T Nelson, University of Vermont, United States
© 2020, MacKay et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric proton-gated sodium channels. Recent work has shown that these channels play a role in necroptosis following prolonged acidic exposure like occurs in stroke. The C-terminus of ASIC1a is thought to mediate necroptotic cell death through interaction with receptor interacting serine threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1). This interaction is hypothesized to be inhibited at rest via an interaction between the C- and N-termini which blocks the RIPK1 binding site. Here, we use two transition metal ion FRET methods to investigate the conformational dynamics of the termini at neutral and acidic pH. We do not find evidence that the termini are close enough to be bound while the channel is at rest and find that the termini may modestly move closer together during acidification. At rest, the N-terminus adopts a conformation parallel to the membrane about 10 Å away. The distal end of the C-terminus may also spend time close to the membrane at rest. After acidification, the proximal portion of the N-terminus moves marginally closer to the membrane whereas the distal portion of the C-terminus swings away from the membrane. Together these data suggest that a new hypothesis for RIPK1 binding during stroke is needed.