(A) The NS vicarious pain-predictive pattern was spatially correlated with the FE vicarious pain-predictive pattern. (B) Scatter plot displaying normalized voxel weights for NS (y-axis) and FE (x-axis) vicarious pain-predictive patterns. Bars on the right represent the sum of squared distances from the origin (0,0) for each Octant. Different colors are assigned to the eight Octants that reflect voxels of shared positive or shared negative weights (Octants 2 and 6, respectively), selectively positive weights for the NS (Octant 1) or for FE (Octant 3) vicarious pain patterns, selectively negative weights for the NS (Octant 5) or FE (Octant 7) vicarious pain patterns, and voxels with opposite weights for the two neural signatures (Octants 4 and 8). The numbers on the top of each bar indicate the voxel counts for each Octant. (C) Cross-validation accuracy as determined by two-alternative forced-choice classification tests based on the whole-brain patterns. The results demonstrated significant within- and between- modality classifications for both NS and FE vicarious pain-predictive patterns. The dashed line indicates the chance level (50%), and the error bars represent the standard error of the mean across subjects. ***p < 0.001. SSD, sum of squared distances. Error bar indicates standard error. NS vicarious pain, observation of noxious stimulation of body limbs induced vicarious pain; FE vicarious pain, observation of facial expressions of pain induced pain.