NatB is one of three major N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) complexes (NatA-NatC), which co-translationally acetylate the N-termini of eukaryotic proteins. Its substrates account for about 21% of the human proteome, including well known proteins such as actin, tropomyosin, CDK2, and α-synuclein (aSyn). Human NatB (hNatB) mediated N-terminal acetylation of αSyn has been demonstrated to play key roles in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis and as a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of hNatB bound to a CoA-aSyn conjugate, together with structure-guided analysis of mutational effects on catalysis. This analysis reveals functionally important differences with human NatA and Candida albicans NatB, resolves key hNatB protein determinants for aSyn N-terminal acetylation, and identifies important residues for substrate-specific recognition and acetylation by NatB enzymes. These studies have implications for developing small molecule NatB probes and for understanding the mode of substrate selection by NAT enzymes.
Cryo-EM data submissions to the Protein Data Bank (PDB code 6VP9), Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMD code 21307) and Electron Microscopy Public Image Archive (EMPIAR-10477).
- Ronen Marmorstein
- James Petersson
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jeannie Chin, Baylor College of Medicine, United States
© 2020, Deng et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Calcium ion movements between cellular stores and the cytosol govern muscle contraction, the most energy-consuming function in mammals, which confers skeletal myofibers a pivotal role in glycemia regulation. Chronic myoplasmic calcium elevation (“calcium stress”), found in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible (MHS) patients and multiple myopathies, has been suggested to underlie the progression from hyperglycemia to insulin resistance. What drives such progression remains elusive. We find that muscle cells derived from MHS patients have increased content of an activated fragment of GSK3β — a specialized kinase that inhibits glycogen synthase, impairing glucose utilization and delineating a path to hyperglycemia. We also find decreased content of junctophilin1, an essential structural protein that colocalizes in the couplon with the voltage-sensing CaV1.1, the calcium channel RyR1 and calpain1, accompanied by an increase in a 44 kDa junctophilin1 fragment (JPh44) that moves into nuclei. We trace these changes to activated proteolysis by calpain1, secondary to increased myoplasmic calcium. We demonstrate that a JPh44-like construct induces transcriptional changes predictive of increased glucose utilization in myoblasts, including less transcription and translation of GSK3β and decreased transcription of proteins that reduce utilization of glucose. These effects reveal a stress-adaptive response, mediated by the novel regulator of transcription JPh44.
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