Ciliary motility is driven by axonemal dyneins that are assembled in the cytoplasm before deployment to cilia. Motile ciliopathy can result from defects in the dyneins themselves or from defects in factors required for their cytoplasmic pre-assembly. Recent work demonstrates that axonemal dyneins, their specific assembly factors, and broadly acting chaperones are concentrated in liquid-like organelles in the cytoplasm called DynAPs (Dynein Axonemal Particles). Here, we use in vivo imaging in Xenopus to show that inner dynein arm (IDA) and outer dynein arm (ODA) subunits are partitioned into non-overlapping sub-regions within DynAPs. Using affinity purification mass-spectrometry of in vivo interaction partners, we also identify novel partners for inner and outer dynein arms. Among these, we identify C16orf71/Daap1 as a novel axonemal dynein regulator. Daap1 interacts with ODA subunits, localizes specifically to the cytoplasm, is enriched in DynAPs, and is required for the deployment of ODAs to axonemes. Our work reveals a new complexity in the structure and function of a cell-type specific liquid-like organelle that is directly relevant to human genetic disease.
Proteomics data has been deposited into Massive which in turn was passed to ProteomeXchange. The Massive accession # is: MSV000085075 The ProteomeXchange # is PXD017980 as noted in the paper. The direct link is http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/cgi/GetDataset?ID=PXD017980The direct link to the data ftp site is ftp://massive.ucsd.edu/MSV000085075/. These data are also provided in Supp. Tables 1-3.
Functional partitioning of a liquid-like organelle during assembly of axonemal dyneinsMassIVE, doi:10.25345/C5T69F.
- John B Wallingford
- John B Wallingford
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All experiments were performed in strict accordance with the UT IACU protocol # AUP-2018-00225
- Andrew P Carter, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, United Kingdom
© 2020, Lee et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Dynamic regulation of transcription is crucial for the cellular responses to various environmental or developmental cues. Gdown1 is a ubiquitously expressed, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) interacting protein, essential for the embryonic development of metazoan. It tightly binds Pol II in vitro and competitively blocks the binding of TFIIF and possibly other transcriptional regulatory factors, yet its cellular functions and regulatory circuits remain unclear. Here, we show that human GDOWN1 strictly localizes in the cytoplasm of various types of somatic cells and exhibits a potent resistance to the imposed driving force for its nuclear localization. Combined with the genetic and microscope-based approaches, two types of the functionally coupled and evolutionally conserved localization regulatory motifs are identified, including the CRM1-dependent nucleus export signal (NES) and a novel Cytoplasmic Anchoring Signal (CAS) that mediates its retention outside of the nuclear pore complexes (NPC). Mutagenesis of CAS alleviates GDOWN1’s cytoplasmic retention, thus unlocks its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling properties, and the increased nuclear import and accumulation of GDOWN1 results in a drastic reduction of both Pol II and its associated global transcription levels. Importantly, the nuclear translocation of GDOWN1 occurs in response to the oxidative stresses, and the ablation of GDOWN1 significantly weakens the cellular tolerance. Collectively, our work uncovers the molecular basis of GDOWN1’s subcellular localization and a novel cellular strategy of modulating global transcription and stress-adaptation via controlling the nuclear translocation of GDOWN1.
Axon degeneration contributes to the disruption of neuronal circuit function in diseased and injured nervous systems. Severed axons degenerate following the activation of an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway, which culminates in the activation of SARM1 in mammals to execute the pathological depletion of the metabolite NAD+. SARM1 NADase activity is activated by the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). In mammals, keeping NMN levels low potently preserves axons after injury. However, it remains unclear whether NMN is also a key mediator of axon degeneration and dSarm activation in flies. Here, we demonstrate that lowering NMN levels in Drosophila through the expression of a newly generated prokaryotic NMN-Deamidase (NMN-D) preserves severed axons for months and keeps them circuit-integrated for weeks. NMN-D alters the NAD+ metabolic flux by lowering NMN, while NAD+ remains unchanged in vivo. Increased NMN synthesis, by the expression of mouse nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (mNAMPT), leads to faster axon degeneration after injury. We also show that NMN-induced activation of dSarm mediates axon degeneration in vivo. Finally, NMN-D delays neurodegeneration caused by loss of the sole NMN-consuming and NAD+-synthesizing enzyme dNmnat. Our results reveal a critical role for NMN in neurodegeneration in the fly, which extends beyond axonal injury. The potent neuroprotection by reducing NMN levels is similar to the interference with other essential mediators of axon degeneration in Drosophila.