Viral infections are controlled, and very often cleared, by activated T lymphocytes. The inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) mediates its functions by binding to its ligand ICOSL, enhancing T-cell activation and optimal germinal center (GC) formation. Here, we show that ICOSL is heavily downmodulated during infection of antigen presenting cells by different herpesviruses. We found that, in murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), the immunoevasin m138/fcr-1 physically interacts with ICOSL, impeding its maturation and promoting its lysosomal degradation. This viral protein counteracts T-cell responses, in an ICOS-dependent manner, and limits virus control during the acute MCMV infection. Additionally, we report that blockade of ICOSL in MCMV-infected mice critically regulates the production of MCMV-specific antibodies due to a reduction of T follicular helper and GC B cells. Altogether, these findings reveal a novel mechanism evolved by MCMV to counteract adaptive immune surveillance, and demonstrates a role of the ICOS:ICOSL axis in the host defense against herpesviruses.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files
- Ana Angulo
- Pablo Engel
- Stipan Jonjic
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All procedures involving animals and their care were approved (protocol number CEEA 308/12) by the Ethics Committee of the University of Barcelona (Spain) and the Animal Welfare Committee at the University of Rijeka (Croatia) and were conducted in compliance with institutional guidelines as well as with national (Generalitat de Catalunya decree 214/1997, DOGC 2450) and international (Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Institutes of Health, 85-23, 1985) laws and policies.
Human subjects: Human blood was obtained from healthy volunteer donors through the Blood and Tissue Bank of the Catalan Department of Health (Barcelona, Spain). Utilization of blood products for the experiments conducted was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Barcelona, Spain), and according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.
- John W Schoggins, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States
© 2021, Angulo et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The interplay among different cells in a tissue is essential for maintaining homeostasis. Although disease states have been traditionally attributed to individual cell types, increasing evidence and new therapeutic options have demonstrated the primary role of multicellular functions to understand health and disease, opening new avenues to understand pathogenesis and develop new treatment strategies. We recently described the cellular composition and dynamics of the human oral mucosa; however, the spatial arrangement of cells is needed to better understand a morphologically complex tissue. Here, we link single-cell RNA sequencing, spatial transcriptomics, and high-resolution multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation to characterise human oral mucosa in health and oral chronic inflammatory disease. We deconvolved expression for resolution enhancement of spatial transcriptomic data and defined highly specialised epithelial and stromal compartments describing location-specific immune programs. Furthermore, we spatially mapped a rare pathogenic fibroblast population localised in a highly immunogenic region, responsible for lymphocyte recruitment through CXCL8 and CXCL10 and with a possible role in pathological angiogenesis through ALOX5AP. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive reference for the study of oral chronic disease pathogenesis.
Newborns are unable to reach the adult-level humoral immune response partly due to the potent immunoregulatory role of IL-10. Increased IL-10 production by neonatal B cells has been attributed to the larger population of IL-10-producting CD43+ B-1 cells in neonates. Here, we show that neonatal mouse CD43- non-B-1 cells also produce substantial amounts of IL-10 following B cell antigen receptor (BCR) activation. In neonatal mouse CD43- non-B-1 cells, BCR engagement activated STAT5 under the control of phosphorylated forms of signaling molecules Syk, Btk, PKC, FAK and Rac1. Neonatal STAT5 activation led to IL-6 production, which in turn was responsible for IL-10 production in an autocrine/paracrine fashion through the activation of STAT3. In addition to the increased IL-6 production in response to BCR stimulation, elevated expression of IL-6Rα expression in neonatal B cells rendered them highly susceptible to IL-6 mediated STAT3 phosphorylation and IL-10 production. Finally, IL-10 secreted from neonatal mouse CD43- non-B-1 cells was sufficient to inhibit TNF-α secretion by macrophages. Our results unveil a distinct mechanism of IL-6-dependent IL-10 production in BCR-stimulated neonatal CD19+CD43- B cells.