(a) Those higher in need for cognition were more likely to choose the effortful option, especially when pain and effort offers were both in the higher, more aversive range (e.g. 4-back vs. 80/100 pain). (b) Similarly, those higher in pain catastrophizing preferred to avoid the pain option (and thus choose the cognitive effort option) at increasing N-back levels. NFC = need for cognition, PCS = pain catastrophizing. The grey dashed line indicates the indifference point between the two choices (i.e. the point where the probability of choosing either the pain or effort option is 50%).