The human subcortex is comprised of more than 450 individual nuclei which lie deep in the brain. Due to their small size and close proximity, up until now only 7% have been depicted in standard MRI atlases. Thus, the human subcortex can largely be considered as terra incognita. Here we present a new open source parcellation algorithm to automatically map the subcortex. The new algorithm has been tested on 17 prominent subcortical structures based on a large quantitative MRI dataset at 7 Tesla. It has been carefully validated against expert human raters and previous methods, and can easily be extended to other subcortical structures and applied to any quantitative MRI dataset. In sum, we hope this novel parcellation algorithm will facilitate functional and structural neuroimaging research into small subcortical nuclei and help to chart terra incognita.
The tool presented in this article is available in open source on Github (https://github.com/nighres/nighres). The atlases necessary to run the algorithm have been deposited on the University of Amsterdam FigShare (https://doi.org/10.21942/uva.12074175.v1 and https://doi.org/10.21942/uva.12301106.v2). A single sample subject data set has been deposited on the University of Amsterdam FigShare (https://doi.org/10.21942/uva.12280316.v2). All the measurements used to generate the figures included in the article have been deposited on the University of Amsterdam FigShare (https://doi.org/10.21942/uva.12452444.v1).
The Amsterdam Ultra-high field adult lifespan database (AHEAD): A freely available multimodal 7 Tesla submillimeter magnetic resonance imaging databaseFigShare University of Amsterdam / Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences.
The WU-Minn Human Connectome ProjectWU-Minn HCP Retest Data.
- Birte U Forstmann
- Anneke Alkemade
- Birte U Forstmann
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: Informed consent and consent to publish, including consent to publish anonymized imaging data, was obtained for all subjects. Ethical approval was obtained with the University of Amsterdam Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences LAB Ethics Review Board, with ERB number 2016-DP-6897.
- Timothy Verstynen, Carnegie Mellon University, United States
© 2020, Bazin et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Throughout development, the brain transits from early highly synchronous activity patterns to a mature state with sparse and decorrelated neural activity, yet the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. The developmental transition has important functional consequences, as the latter state is thought to allow for more efficient storage, retrieval and processing of information. Here, we show that, in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), neural activity during the first two postnatal weeks decorrelates following specific spatial patterns. This process is accompanied by a concomitant tilting of excitation-inhibition (E-I) ratio towards inhibition. Using optogenetic manipulations and neural network modeling, we show that the two phenomena are mechanistically linked, and that a relative increase of inhibition drives the decorrelation of neural activity. Accordingly, in mice mimicking the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, subtle alterations in E-I ratio are associated with specific impairments in the correlational structure of spike trains. Finally, capitalizing on EEG data from newborn babies, we show that an analogous developmental transition takes place also in the human brain. Thus, changes in E-I ratio control the (de)correlation of neural activity and, by these means, its developmental imbalance might contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Humans and animals make predictions about the rewards they expect to receive in different situations. In formal models of behavior, these predictions are known as value representations, and they play two very different roles. Firstly, they drive choice: the expected values of available options are compared to one another, and the best option is selected. Secondly, they support learning: expected values are compared to rewards actually received, and future expectations are updated accordingly. Whether these different functions are mediated by different neural representations remains an open question. Here we employ a recently-developed multi-step task for rats that computationally separates learning from choosing. We investigate the role of value representations in the rodent orbitofrontal cortex, a key structure for value-based cognition. Electrophysiological recordings and optogenetic perturbations indicate that these representations do not directly drive choice. Instead, they signal expected reward information to a learning process elsewhere in the brain that updates choice mechanisms.