Brown adipose tissue is a metabolically beneficial organ capable of dissipating chemical energy into heat, thereby increasing energy expenditure. Here, we identify Dot1l, the only known H3K79 methyltransferase, as an interacting partner of Zc3h10 that transcriptionally activates the Ucp1 promoter and other BAT genes. Through a direct interaction, Dot1l is recruited by Zc3h10 to the promoter regions of thermogenic genes to function as a coactivator by methylating H3K79. We also show that Dot1l is induced during brown fat cell differentiation and by cold exposure and that Dot1l and its H3K79 methyltransferase activity is required for thermogenic gene program. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Dot1l ablation in mice using Ucp1-Cre prevents activation of Ucp1 and other target genes to reduce thermogenic capacity and energy expenditure, promoting adiposity. Hence, Dot1l plays a critical role in the thermogenic program and may present as a future target for obesity therapeutics.
We have deposited ATAC-seq and RNA-seq files in the NCBI database (GSE159645)
Genome-wide maps of chromatin state(ATAC-seq) and gene expression(RNA-seq) of cold exposed Dot1l-ablated mouse brown adipose tissueNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE159645.
- Hei Sook Sul
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Peter Tontonoz, University of California, Los Angeles, United States
© 2020, Yi et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
mTORC1 senses nutrients and growth factors and phosphorylates downstream targets, including the transcription factor TFEB, to coordinate metabolic supply and demand. These functions position mTORC1 as a central controller of cellular homeostasis, but the behavior of this system in individual cells has not been well characterized. Here, we provide measurements necessary to refine quantitative models for mTORC1 as a metabolic controller. We developed a series of fluorescent protein-TFEB fusions and a multiplexed immunofluorescence approach to investigate how combinations of stimuli jointly regulate mTORC1 signaling at the single-cell level. Live imaging of individual MCF10A cells confirmed that mTORC1-TFEB signaling responds continuously to individual, sequential, or simultaneous treatment with amino acids and the growth factor insulin. Under physiologically relevant concentrations of amino acids, we observe correlated fluctuations in TFEB, AMPK, and AKT signaling that indicate continuous activity adjustments to nutrient availability. Using partial least squares regression modeling, we show that these continuous gradations are connected to protein synthesis rate via a distributed network of mTORC1 effectors, providing quantitative support for the qualitative model of mTORC1 as a homeostatic controller and clarifying its functional behavior within individual cells.
Insufficient insulin secretion to meet metabolic demand results in diabetes. The intracellular flux of Ca2+ into β-cells triggers insulin release. Since genetics strongly influences variation in islet secretory responses, we surveyed islet Ca2+ dynamics in eight genetically diverse mouse strains. We found high strain variation in response to four conditions: (1) 8 mM glucose; (2) 8 mM glucose plus amino acids; (3) 8 mM glucose, amino acids, plus 10 nM glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and (4) 2 mM glucose. These stimuli interrogate β-cell function, α- to β-cell signaling, and incretin responses. We then correlated components of the Ca2+ waveforms to islet protein abundances in the same strains used for the Ca2+ measurements. To focus on proteins relevant to human islet function, we identified human orthologues of correlated mouse proteins that are proximal to glycemic-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in human genome-wide association studies. Several orthologues have previously been shown to regulate insulin secretion (e.g. ABCC8, PCSK1, and GCK), supporting our mouse-to-human integration as a discovery platform. By integrating these data, we nominate novel regulators of islet Ca2+ oscillations and insulin secretion with potential relevance for human islet function. We also provide a resource for identifying appropriate mouse strains in which to study these regulators.