Across conditions (colored boxes on the right), in each trial, participants had to indicate the orientation tilt (left or right) of a target gabor. In all conditions, a distractor (a gabor that was horizontally or vertically oriented) could be concurrently presented, which appeared with 70% probability on one specific location. The search display was presented for 200 ms, and participants had 1000 ms to respond. In the DpTp identical and DpTP unique (Experiments 1 and 2) conditions, the spatial frequency of the target and distractor were fixed within an experimental block of trials, with targets and distractors having the same spatial frequency in the former and different spatial frequencies in the latter. In DvTv unique condition (Experiment 1), the target and distractor had different spatial frequencies, which were randomly selected across trials. Finally, in the DpTv condition (Experiment 2), the target and distractor had different spatial frequencies, but only the distractor spatial frequency was fixed across trials in an experimental block. The visualized spatial frequencies do not correspond to the frequencies used in the experiment. Note further that the colors of each condition correspond to condition-specific colors in subsequent figures.