Dorsal Excitor motor neuron DE-3 in the medicinal leech plays three very different dynamical roles in three different behaviors. Without rewiring its anatomical connectivity, how can a motor neuron dynamically switch roles to play appropriate roles in various behaviors? We previously used voltage-sensitive dye imaging to record from DE-3 and most other neurons in the leech segmental ganglion during (fictive) swimming, crawling, and local-bend escape (Tomina and Wagenaar, 2017). Here, we repeated that experiment, then re-imaged the same ganglion using serial blockface electron microscopy and traced DE-3's processes. Further, we traced back the processes of DE-3's presynaptic partners to their respective somata. This allowed us to analyze the relationship between circuit anatomy and the activity patterns it sustains. We found that input synapses important for all of the behaviors were widely distributed over DE-3's branches, yet that functional clusters were different during (fictive) swimming vs. crawling.
The easiest way to access the raw electrophysiology and voltage-dye data as well as the tracing results used in this paper is through a series of Python modules that we made available at https://github.com/wagenadl/leechem-public. Included in the package is a file called "demo.py" that demonstrates the use of the modules. Table 4 lists the available VSD trials.The aligned EM volume may be accessed through the Neuroglancer instance at https://leechem.caltech.edu or by pointing SBEMViewer to https://leechem.caltech.edu/emdata.The code used for alignment is available at https://github.com/wagenadl/sbemalign. Our visualization tools SBEMViewer and GVox are at https://github.com/wagenadl/sbemviewer and https://github.com/wagenadl/gvox.
Code and data access forGithub, wagenadl/leechem.
- William B Kristan Jnr
- Mark H Ellisman
- Daniel A Wagenaar
- Mark H Ellisman
- Yusuke Tomina
- Yusuke Tomina
- Pegah Kassraian
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Vatsala Thirumalai, National Centre for Biological Sciences, India
© 2021, Ashaber et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
We still face fundamental gaps in understanding how molecular plastic changes of synapses intersect with circuit operation to define behavioral states. Here we show that an antagonism between two conserved regulatory proteins, Spinophilin (Spn) and Syd-1, controls presynaptic long-term plasticity and the maintenance of olfactory memories in Drosophila. While Spn mutants could not trigger nanoscopic active zone remodeling under homeostatic challenge and failed to stably potentiate neurotransmitter release, concomitant reduction of Syd-1 rescued all these deficits. The Spn/Syd-1 antagonism converged on active zone close F-actin, and genetic or acute pharmacological depolymerization of F-actin rescued the Spn deficits by allowing access to synaptic vesicle release sites. Within the intrinsic mushroom body neurons, the Spn/Syd-1 antagonism specifically controlled olfactory memory stabilization but not initial learning. Thus, this evolutionarily conserved protein complex controls behaviorally relevant presynaptic long-term plasticity, also observed in the mammalian brain but still enigmatic concerning its molecular mechanisms and behavioral relevance.
Cerebellar climbing fibers convey diverse signals, but how they are organized in the compartmental structure of the cerebellar cortex during learning remains largely unclear. We analyzed a large amount of coordinate-localized two-photon imaging data from cerebellar Crus II in mice undergoing ‘Go/No-go’ reinforcement learning. Tensor component analysis revealed that a majority of climbing fiber inputs to Purkinje cells were reduced to only four functional components, corresponding to accurate timing control of motor initiation related to a Go cue, cognitive error-based learning, reward processing, and inhibition of erroneous behaviors after a No-go cue. Changes in neural activities during learning of the first two components were correlated with corresponding changes in timing control and error learning across animals, indirectly suggesting causal relationships. Spatial distribution of these components coincided well with boundaries of Aldolase-C/zebrin II expression in Purkinje cells, whereas several components are mixed in single neurons. Synchronization within individual components was bidirectionally regulated according to specific task contexts and learning stages. These findings suggest that, in close collaborations with other brain regions including the inferior olive nucleus, the cerebellum, based on anatomical compartments, reduces dimensions of the learning space by dynamically organizing multiple functional components, a feature that may inspire new-generation AI designs.