The Hippo pathway regulates tissue growth in many animals. Multiple upstream components promote Hippo pathway activity, but the organization of these different inputs, the degree of crosstalk between them, and whether they are regulated in a distinct manner is not well understood. Kibra activates the Hippo pathway by recruiting the core Hippo kinase cassette to the apical cortex. Here we show that the Hippo pathway downregulates Drosophila Kibra levels independently of Yorkie-mediated transcription. We find that Hippo signaling complex formation promotes Kibra degradation via SCFSlimb-mediated ubiquitination, that this effect requires Merlin, Salvador, Hippo, and Warts, and that this mechanism functions independently of other upstream Hippo pathway activators. Moreover, Kibra degradation appears patterned by differences in mechanical tension across the wing. We propose that Kibra degradation mediated by Hippo pathway components and regulated by cytoskeletal tension serves to control Kibra-driven Hippo pathway activation and ensure optimally scaled and patterned tissue growth.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Richard G Fehon
- Sherzod A Tokamov
- Sherzod A Tokamov
S. A. T. conceptualized the project, performed most of the experiments and data collection, and wrote the manuscript. R. G. F. conceptualized supervised all aspects of the project, and helped writing the manuscript. Both S. A. T. and R. G. F. agreed to submit the work for publication.
- Elisabeth Knust, Max-Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Germany
© 2021, Tokamov et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Although most species have two sexes, multisexual (or multi-mating type) species are also widespread. However, it is unclear how mating-type recognition is achieved at the molecular level in multisexual species. The unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types, which are determined by the MTA and MTB proteins. In this study, we found that both proteins are essential for cells to send or receive complete mating-type information, and transmission of the mating-type signal requires both proteins to be expressed in the same cell. We found that MTA and MTB form a mating-type recognition complex that localizes to the plasma membrane, but not to the cilia. Stimulation experiments showed that the mating-type-specific regions of MTA and MTB mediate both self- and non-self-recognition, indicating that T. thermophila uses a dual approach to achieve mating-type recognition. Our results suggest that MTA and MTB form an elaborate multifunctional protein complex that can identify cells of both self and non-self mating types in order to inhibit or activate mating, respectively.
SNAP25 is one of three neuronal SNAREs driving synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We studied three mutations in SNAP25 that cause epileptic encephalopathy: V48F, and D166Y in the synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1)-binding interface, and I67N, which destabilizes the SNARE complex. All three mutations reduced Syt1-dependent vesicle docking to SNARE-carrying liposomes and Ca2+-stimulated membrane fusion in vitro and when expressed in mouse hippocampal neurons. The V48F and D166Y mutants (with potency D166Y > V48F) led to reduced readily releasable pool (RRP) size, due to increased spontaneous (miniature Excitatory Postsynaptic Current, mEPSC) release and decreased priming rates. These mutations lowered the energy barrier for fusion and increased the release probability, which are gain-of-function features not found in Syt1 knockout (KO) neurons; normalized mEPSC release rates were higher (potency D166Y > V48F) than in the Syt1 KO. These mutations (potency D166Y > V48F) increased spontaneous association to partner SNAREs, resulting in unregulated membrane fusion. In contrast, the I67N mutant decreased mEPSC frequency and evoked EPSC amplitudes due to an increase in the height of the energy barrier for fusion, whereas the RRP size was unaffected. This could be partly compensated by positive charges lowering the energy barrier. Overall, pathogenic mutations in SNAP25 cause complex changes in the energy landscape for priming and fusion.