(a, b, c) Microscopy images of swarming bacteria and side-view illustrations at different levels of cell density (). Timestamp is relative to the formation of dynamic multilayer islands. (a) When cell density is below a threshold , cells swarm in a monolayer. Image is 57 min prior to islands formation. Inset is a zoomed image showing swarming rafts. (b) Increase in cell density leads to formation of second layers, that appear as darker regions in the swarm. These islands are highly dynamic, and cells are motile. The shape of the islands changes dynamically within 1 s (insert). See also Video 4. (c) Over time, the islands increase their size and merge together to form double-layered regions, coexisting with mono-layered regions. Double-layered regions are seen darker than mono layered regions. (d, e) Images of swarming colony with and without kanamycin. The diagram illustrates the regions of interest (ROI) used for the panels. The dynamics of island formation are color coded using the lookup table. The origin of times is the appearance of island. The earliest islands correspond to the darkest colors whereas the new features correspond to the lightest ones. See also Video 6. (d) In the absence of kanamycin, multilayer regions are much grainer with no clear patterns of propagation. (e) In the presence of kanamycin, multilayered regions have a defined pattern, starting from the regions closer to kanamycin to form an elongated shape. These regions appear predominantly at ~7 mm away from kanamycin.