Renshaw cells (V1R) are excitable as soon as they reach their final location next to the spinal motoneurons and are functionally heterogeneous. Using multiple experimental approaches, in combination with biophysical modeling and dynamical systems theory, we analyzed, for the first time, the mechanisms underlying the electrophysiological properties of V1R during early embryonic development of the mouse spinal cord locomotor networks (E11.5-E16.5). We found that these interneurons are subdivided into several functional clusters from E11.5 and then display an unexpected transitory involution process during which they lose their ability to sustain tonic firing. We demonstrated that the essential factor controlling the diversity of the discharge pattern of embryonic V1R is the ratio of a persistent sodium conductance to a delayed rectifier potassium conductance. Taken together, our results reveal how a simple mechanism, based on the synergy of two voltage-dependent conductances that are ubiquitous in neurons, can produce functional diversity in embryonic V1R and control their early developmental trajectory.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for Figures 3 (Source data files for cluster analysis).
- Pascal Legendre
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Experiments were performed in accordance with European Community guiding principles on the care and use of animals (86/609/CEE, CE Off J no. L358, 18 December 1986), French decree no. 97/748 of October 19, 1987 (Journal Officiel République Française, 20 October 1987, pp. 12245-12248). All procedures were carried out in accordance with the local ethics committee of local Universities and recommendations from the CNRS. pregnant mice were anesthetized by intramuscular injection of a mix of ketamine and xylazine and sacrificed using a lethal dose of CO2 after embryos of either sex were removed. Every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Jeffrey C Smith, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, United States
© 2021, Boeri et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Genuinely new discovery transcends existing knowledge. Despite this, many analyses in systems neuroscience neglect to test new speculative hypotheses against benchmark empirical facts. Some of these analyses inadvertently use circular reasoning to present existing knowledge as new discovery. Here, I discuss that this problem can confound key results and estimate that it has affected more than three thousand studies in network neuroscience over the last decade. I suggest that future studies can reduce this problem by limiting the use of speculative evidence, integrating existing knowledge into benchmark models, and rigorously testing proposed discoveries against these models. I conclude with a summary of practical challenges and recommendations.
The synchronization of canonical fast sleep spindle activity (12.5–16 Hz, adult-like) precisely during the slow oscillation (0.5–1 Hz) up peak is considered an essential feature of adult non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, there is little knowledge on how this well-known coalescence between slow oscillations and sleep spindles develops. Leveraging individualized detection of single events, we first provide a detailed cross-sectional characterization of age-specific patterns of slow and fast sleep spindles, slow oscillations, and their coupling in children and adolescents aged 5–6, 8–11, and 14–18 years, and an adult sample of 20- to 26-year-olds. Critically, based on this, we then investigated how spindle and slow oscillation maturity substantiate age-related differences in their precise orchestration. While the predominant type of fast spindles was development-specific in that it was still nested in a frequency range below the canonical fast spindle range for the majority of children, the well-known slow oscillation-spindle coupling pattern was evident for sleep spindles in the adult-like canonical fast spindle range in all four age groups—but notably less precise in children. To corroborate these findings, we linked personalized measures of fast spindle maturity, which indicate the similarity between the prevailing development-specific and adult-like canonical fast spindles, and slow oscillation maturity, which reflects the extent to which slow oscillations show frontal dominance, with individual slow oscillation-spindle coupling patterns. Importantly, we found that fast spindle maturity was uniquely associated with enhanced slow oscillation-spindle coupling strength and temporal precision across the four age groups. Taken together, our results suggest that the increasing ability to generate adult-like canonical fast sleep spindles actuates precise slow oscillation-spindle coupling patterns from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood.