TRIM37 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase mutated in Mulibrey nanism, a disease with impaired organ growth and increased tumor formation. TRIM37 depletion from tissue culture cells results in supernumerary foci bearing the centriolar protein Centrin. Here, we characterize these centriolar protein assemblies (Cenpas) to uncover the mechanism of action of TRIM37. We find that an atypical de novo assembly pathway can generate Cenpas that act as microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), including in Mulibrey patient cells. Correlative light electron microscopy reveals that Cenpas are centriole-related or electron-dense structures with stripes. TRIM37 regulates the stability and solubility of Centrobin, which accumulates in elongated entities resembling the striped electron dense structures upon TRIM37 depletion. Furthermore, Cenpas formation upon TRIM37 depletion requires PLK4, as well as two parallel pathways relying respectively on Centrobin and PLK1. Overall, our work uncovers how TRIM37 prevents Cenpas formation, which would otherwise threaten genome integrity, including in Mulibrey patients.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Pierre Gönczy
- Fernando R Balestra
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: Fibroblast cultures were established from skin biopsy samples with approval by the Institutional Review Board of the Helsinki University Central Hospital (183/13/03/03/2009). The patients signed an informed consent for the use of fibroblast cultures.
- Jens Lüders, Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Spain
© 2021, Balestra et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The relative positions of viral DNA genomes to the host intranuclear environment play critical roles in determining virus fate. Recent advances in the application of chromosome conformation capture-based sequencing analysis (3 C technologies) have revealed valuable aspects of the spatiotemporal interplay of viral genomes with host chromosomes. However, to elucidate the causal relationship between the subnuclear localization of viral genomes and the pathogenic outcome of an infection, manipulative tools are needed. Rapid repositioning of viral DNAs to specific subnuclear compartments amid infection is a powerful approach to synchronize and interrogate this dynamically changing process in space and time. Herein, we report an inducible CRISPR-based two-component platform that relocates extrachromosomal DNA pieces (5 kb to 170 kb) to the nuclear periphery in minutes (CRISPR-nuPin). Based on this strategy, investigations of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a prototypical member of the human herpesvirus family, revealed unprecedently reported insights into the early intranuclear life of the pathogen: (I) Viral genomes tethered to the nuclear periphery upon entry, compared with those freely infecting the nucleus, were wrapped around histones with increased suppressive modifications and subjected to stronger transcriptional silencing and prominent growth inhibition. (II) Relocating HSV-1 genomes at 1 hr post infection significantly promoted the transcription of viral genes, termed an ‘Escaping’ effect. (III) Early accumulation of ICP0 was a sufficient but not necessary condition for ‘Escaping’. (IV) Subnuclear localization was only critical during early infection. Importantly, the CRISPR-nuPin tactic, in principle, is applicable to many other DNA viruses.
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