Triacylglycerol (TG) and steryl ester (SE) lipid storage is a universal strategy to maintain organismal energy and membrane homeostasis. Cycles of building and mobilizing storage fat are fundamental in (re)distributing lipid substrates between tissues or to progress ontogenetic transitions. In this study we show that Hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) specifically controls SE mobilization to initiate intergenerational sterol transfer in Drosophila melanogaster. Tissue-autonomous Hsl functions in the maternal fat body and germline coordinately prevent adult SE overstorage and maximize sterol allocation to embryos. While Hsl-deficiency is largely dispensable for normal development on sterol-rich diets, animals depend on adipocyte Hsl for optimal fecundity when dietary sterol becomes limiting. Notably, accumulation of SE but not of TG is a characteristic of Hsl-deficient cells across phyla including murine white adipocytes. In summary, we identified Hsl as an ancestral regulator of SE degradation, which improves intergenerational sterol transfer and reproductive success in flies.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Gabriele Schoiswohl
- Andrej Shevchenko
- Andrej Shevchenko
- Ingrid Pörnbacher
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal protocols were approved by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Science, Research, and Economy (protocol number BMWFW-66.007/0026/-WF/V/3b/2017) and the ethics committee of the University of Graz, and were conducted in compliance with the council of Europe Convention (ETS 123).
- Joel K Elmquist, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States
© 2021, Heier et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Chain-length specific subsets of diacylglycerol (DAG) lipids are proposed to regulate differential physiological responses ranging from signal transduction to modulation of the membrane properties. However, the mechanism or molecular players regulating the subsets of DAG species remains unknown. Here, we uncover the role of a conserved eukaryotic protein family, DISCO-interacting protein 2 (DIP2) as a homeostatic regulator of a chemically distinct subset of DAGs using yeast, fly and mouse models. Genetic and chemical screens along with lipidomics analysis in yeast reveal that DIP2 prevents the toxic accumulation of specific DAGs in the logarithmic growth phase, which otherwise leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress. We also show that the fatty acyl-AMP ligase-like domains of DIP2 are essential for the redirection of the flux of DAG subspecies to storage lipid, triacylglycerols. DIP2 is associated with vacuoles through mitochondria-vacuole contact sites and such modulation of selective DAG abundance by DIP2 is found to be crucial for optimal vacuole membrane fusion and consequently osmoadaptation in yeast. Thus, the study illuminates an unprecedented DAG metabolism route and provides new insights on how cell fine-tunes DAG subspecies for cellular homeostasis and environmental adaptation.
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