Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by short stature, skeletal deformities, low bone mass, and motor deficits. A subset of OI patients also present with joint hypermobility; however, the role of tendon dysfunction in OI pathogenesis is largely unknown. Using the Crtap-/- mouse model of severe, recessive OI, we found that mutant Achilles and patellar tendons were thinner and weaker with increased collagen cross-links and reduced collagen fibril size at 1- and 4-months compared to wildtype. Patellar tendons from Crtap-/- mice also had altered numbers of CD146+CD200+ and CD146-CD200+ progenitor-like cells at skeletal maturity. RNA-seq analysis of Achilles and patellar tendons from 1-month Crtap-/- mice revealed dysregulation in matrix and tendon marker gene expression concomitant with predicted alterations in TGF-b, inflammatory, and metabolic signaling. At 4-months, Crtap-/- mice showed increased aSMA, MMP2, and phospho-NFkB in the patellar tendon consistent with excess matrix remodeling and tissue inflammation. Finally, a series of behavioral tests showed severe motor impairments and reduced grip strength in 4-month Crtap-/- mice – a phenotype that correlates with the tendon pathology.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for Figure 6 that include full lists of differentially expressed genes resulting from RNA-seq analysis of Achilles and patellar tendons from 1- month wild-type and Crtap-/- mice. For each, a list of predicted upstream regulators identified using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis is also included.
- Brendan H Lee
- Brendan H Lee
- Brendan H Lee
- Brendan H Lee
- David R Eyre
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocols (#AN-1506) at Baylor College of Medicine.
- Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell, University of Colorado, United States
© 2021, Grol et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
For some inducible genes, the rate and molecular mechanism of transcriptional activation depends on the prior experiences of the cell. This phenomenon, called epigenetic transcriptional memory, accelerates reactivation and requires both changes in chromatin structure and recruitment of poised RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) to the promoter. Memory of inositol starvation in budding yeast involves a positive feedback loop between transcription factor-dependent interaction with the nuclear pore complex and histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation (H3K4me2). While H3K4me2 is essential for recruitment of RNAPII and faster reactivation, RNAPII is not required for H3K4me2. Unlike RNAPII-dependent H3K4me2 associated with transcription, RNAPII-independent H3K4me2 requires Nup100, SET3C, the Leo1 subunit of the Paf1 complex and, upon degradation of an essential transcription factor, is inherited through multiple cell cycles. The writer of this mark (COMPASS) physically interacts with the potential reader (SET3C), suggesting a molecular mechanism for the spreading and re-incorporation of H3K4me2 following DNA replication.
Recent discoveries of extreme cellular diversity in the brain warrant rapid development of technologies to access specific cell populations within heterogeneous tissue. Available approaches for engineering-targeted technologies for new neuron subtypes are low yield, involving intensive transgenic strain or virus screening. Here, we present Specific Nuclear-Anchored Independent Labeling (SNAIL), an improved virus-based strategy for cell labeling and nuclear isolation from heterogeneous tissue. SNAIL works by leveraging machine learning and other computational approaches to identify DNA sequence features that confer cell type-specific gene activation and then make a probe that drives an affinity purification-compatible reporter gene. As a proof of concept, we designed and validated two novel SNAIL probes that target parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) neurons. Nuclear isolation using SNAIL in wild-type mice is sufficient to capture characteristic open chromatin features of PV+ neurons in the cortex, striatum, and external globus pallidus. The SNAIL framework also has high utility for multispecies cell probe engineering; expression from a mouse PV+ SNAIL enhancer sequence was enriched in PV+ neurons of the macaque cortex. Expansion of this technology has broad applications in cell type-specific observation, manipulation, and therapeutics across species and disease models.