CEP78 is a centrosomal protein implicated in ciliogenesis and ciliary length control, and mutations in the CEP78 gene cause retinal cone-rod dystrophy associated with hearing loss. However, the mechanism by which CEP78 affects cilia formation is unknown. Based on a recently discovered disease-causing CEP78 p.L150S mutation, we identified the disease-relevant interactome of CEP78. We confirmed that CEP78 interacts with the EDD1-DYRK2-DDB1VPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which is involved in CP110 ubiquitination and degradation, and identified a novel interaction between CEP78 and CEP350 that is weakened by the CEP78L150S mutation. We show that CEP350 promotes centrosomal recruitment and stability of CEP78, which in turn leads to centrosomal recruitment of EDD1. Consistently, cells lacking CEP78 display significantly increased cellular and centrosomal levels of CP110, and depletion of CP110 in CEP78-deficient cells restored ciliation frequency to normal. We propose that CEP78 functions downstream of CEP350 to promote ciliogenesis by negatively regulating CP110 levels via an EDD1-dependent mechanism.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for Figure 3A and Figure 7-figure supplement 2.
- Pietro Farinelli
- Lotte B Pedersen
- Lotte B Pedersen
- Jens S Andersen
- Carlo Rivolta
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jens Lüders, Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Spain
© 2021, Goncalves et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
TMEM16F, a Ca2+-activated phospholipid scramblase (CaPLSase), is critical for placental trophoblast syncytialization, HIV infection, and SARS-CoV2-mediated syncytialization, however, how TMEM16F is activated during cell fusion is unclear. Here, using trophoblasts as a model for cell fusion, we demonstrate that Ca2+ influx through the Ca2+ permeable transient receptor potential vanilloid channel TRPV4 is critical for TMEM16F activation and plays a role in subsequent human trophoblast fusion. GSK1016790A, a TRPV4 specific agonist, robustly activates TMEM16F in trophoblasts. We also show that TRPV4 and TMEM16F are functionally coupled within Ca2+ microdomains in a human trophoblast cell line using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Pharmacological inhibition or gene silencing of TRPV4 hinders TMEM16F activation and subsequent trophoblast syncytialization. Our study uncovers the functional expression of TRPV4 and one of the physiological activation mechanisms of TMEM16F in human trophoblasts, thus providing us with novel strategies to regulate CaPLSase activity as a critical checkpoint of physiologically and disease-relevant cell fusion events.
Centrosomes act as the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in metazoans. Centrosome number is tightly regulated by limiting centriole duplication to a single round per cell cycle. This control is achieved by multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the protein kinase PLK4, the most upstream facilitator of centriole duplication. Altered centrosome numbers in mouse and human cells cause p53-dependent growth arrest through poorly defined mechanisms. Recent work has shown that the E3 ligase TRIM37 is required for cell cycle arrest in acentrosomal cells. To gain additional insights into this process, we undertook a series of genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screens to identify factors important for growth arrest triggered by treatment with centrinone B, a selective PLK4 inhibitor. We found that TRIM37 is a key mediator of growth arrest after partial or full PLK4 inhibition. Interestingly, PLK4 cellular mobility decreased in a dose-dependent manner after centrinone B treatment. In contrast to recent work, we found that growth arrest after PLK4 inhibition correlated better with PLK4 activity than with mitotic length or centrosome number. These data provide insights into the global response to changes in centrosome number and PLK4 activity and extend the role for TRIM37 in regulating the abundance, localization, and function of centrosome proteins.