Orange squares, blue circles, and green triangles depict cortisol levels for individuals who lost their mother less than 3 years ago, 3–6 years ago, and 6–9 years ago, respectively. Each dot represents the average hourly cortisol level of all individuals for each of the three categorical intervals of years since maternal loss. The size of the dot is proportional to the sample size (number of urine samples collected) for each hour of the day. The orange solid line, blue dashed line, and green dashed lines indicate model line predictions, and the orange, blue, and green light areas indicate the 95% credible interval (CI) for individuals who lost their mother less than 3 years ago, 3–6 years ago, and 6–9 years ago, respectively (immature orphan model). The model line depicts the interaction between years since maternal loss and the cubic term for time of day in the immature orphan model: (estimate and [90% CI]: –0.06 [-0.14: 0.00]), but this effect comprised a relatively large uncertainty since the 95% CI overlapped 0 (Table 2). Note that while the predictor ‘years since maternal loss’ was modeled as a continuous variable in the immature orphan model, for ease of interpretation we depict the results here for three categorical intervals of ‘years since maternal loss’. The sample size for the immature orphan model was N = 393 samples and 17 individuals.