Invasive species represent one of the foremost risks to global biodiversity. Here, we use population genomics to evaluate the history and consequences of an invasion of wild tomato-Solanum pimpinellifolium-onto the Galápagos islands from continental South America. Using >300 archipelago and mainland collections, we infer this invasion was recent and largely the result of a single event from central Ecuador. Patterns of ancestry within the genomes of invasive plants also reveal post-colonization hybridization and introgression between S. pimpinellifolium and the closely related Galapagos endemic Solanum cheesmaniae. Of admixed invasive individuals, those that carry endemic alleles at one of two different carotenoid biosynthesis loci also have orange fruits-characteristic of the endemic species-instead of typical red S. pimpinellifolium fruits. We infer that introgression of two independent fruit color loci explains this observed trait convergence, suggesting that selection has favored repeated transitions of red to orange fruits on the Galapagos.
Raw, demultiplexed ddRAD reads have been deposited under NCBI BioProject PRJNA661300 and will be available once processed by NCBI. Genotype files, associated datasets, and analysis scripts have been deposited on Dryad (https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.2v6wwpzkm).Additionally, data posted to Dryad can also be accessed at https://github.com/gibsonMatt/galtom.
Data from: Reconstructing the history and biological consequences of a plant invasion on the Galápagos islandsDryad Digital Repository 10.5061/dryad.2v6wwpzkm.
Phylogenomics reveals three sources of adaptive variation during a rapid radiationDryad Digital Repository 10.5061/dryad.182dv.
Regional differences in the abiotic environment contribute to genomic divergence within a wild tomato speciesDryad Digital Repository 10.5061/dryad.8gtht76k4.
- Leonie Moyle
- Matthew JS Gibson
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Hernán A. Burbano, University College London, United Kingdom
© 2021, Gibson et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Maintaining germline genome integrity is essential and enormously complex. Although many proteins are involved in DNA replication, proofreading, and repair, mutator alleles have largely eluded detection in mammals. DNA replication and repair proteins often recognize sequence motifs or excise lesions at specific nucleotides. Thus, we might expect that the spectrum of de novo mutations – the frequencies of C>T, A>G, etc. – will differ between genomes that harbor either a mutator or wild-type allele. Previously, we used quantitative trait locus mapping to discover candidate mutator alleles in the DNA repair gene Mutyh that increased the C>A germline mutation rate in a family of inbred mice known as the BXDs (Sasani et al., 2022, Ashbrook et al., 2021). In this study we developed a new method to detect alleles associated with mutation spectrum variation and applied it to mutation data from the BXDs. We discovered an additional C>A mutator locus on chromosome 6 that overlaps Ogg1, a DNA glycosylase involved in the same base-excision repair network as Mutyh (David et al., 2007). Its effect depends on the presence of a mutator allele near Mutyh, and BXDs with mutator alleles at both loci have greater numbers of C>A mutations than those with mutator alleles at either locus alone. Our new methods for analyzing mutation spectra reveal evidence of epistasis between germline mutator alleles and may be applicable to mutation data from humans and other model organisms.
Primate evolution has led to a remarkable diversity of behavioral specializations and pronounced brain size variation among species (Barton, 2012; DeCasien and Higham, 2019; Powell et al., 2017). Gene expression provides a promising opportunity for studying the molecular basis of brain evolution, but it has been explored in very few primate species to date (e.g. Khaitovich et al., 2005; Khrameeva et al., 2020; Ma et al., 2022; Somel et al., 2009). To understand the landscape of gene expression evolution across the primate lineage, we generated and analyzed RNA-seq data from four brain regions in an unprecedented eighteen species. Here, we show a remarkable level of variation in gene expression among hominid species, including humans and chimpanzees, despite their relatively recent divergence time from other primates. We found that individual genes display a wide range of expression dynamics across evolutionary time reflective of the diverse selection pressures acting on genes within primate brain tissue. Using our samples that represent a 190-fold difference in primate brain size, we identified genes with variation in expression most correlated with brain size. Our study extensively broadens the phylogenetic context of what is known about the molecular evolution of the brain across primates and identifies novel candidate genes for the study of genetic regulation of brain evolution.