Early events in retrovirus transmission are determined by interactions between incoming viruses and frontline cells near entry sites. Despite their importance for retroviral pathogenesis, very little is known about these events. We developed a bioluminescence imaging (BLI)-guided multiscale imaging approach to study these events in vivo. Engineered murine leukemia reporter viruses allowed us to monitor individual stages of retrovirus life cycle including virus particle flow, virus entry into cells, infection and spread for retroorbital, subcutaneous and oral routes. BLI permitted temporal tracking of orally administered retroviruses along the gastrointestinal tract as they traversed the lumen through Peyer's Patches to reach the draining mesenteric sac. Importantly, capture and acquisition of lymph-, blood- and milk-borne retroviruses spanning three routes, was promoted by a common host factor, the I-type lectin CD169, expressed on sentinel macrophages. These results highlight how retroviruses co-opt the immune surveillance function of tissue resident sentinel macrophages for establishing infection.
Data is plotted as individual points wherever possible. We can provide Graphpad prism files that was used to plot all the graphs for each figure upon request. Raw datasets are freely available upon request. Interested parties should contact firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com , and we will place requested dataset onto an externally accessible Yale Box Server. Requestors will then be provided with a direct URL link from which they can download the files at their convenience. All the images acquired using confocal microscopy are available at Dryad doi:10.5061/dryad.hhmgqnkgw.
In vivo imaging of retrovirus infection reveals a role for Siglec-1/CD169 in multiple routes of transmissionDryad Digital Repository, doi: 10.5061/dryad.hhmgqnkgw.
- Walther Mothes
- Pamela J Bjorkman
- Walther Mothes
- Priti Kumar
- Priti Kumar
- Kelsey A Haugh
- Priti Kumar
- Walther Mothes
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) protocols 2020-10649 and Institutional Biosafety Committee of Yale University (IBSCYU). All the animals were housed under specific pathogen-free conditions in the facilities provided and supported by Yale Animal Resources Center (YARC). All IVIS imaging, blood draw and virus inoculation experiments were done under anesthesia using regulated flow of isoflurane:oxygen mix to minimize pain and discomfort to the animals. Animals were housed under specific pathogen-free conditions in the Yale Animal Resources Center (YARC) in the same room of the vivarium. Yale University is registered as a research facility with the United States Department of Agriculture, License and Registration number 16-R-0001 Registered until March 20, 2023. It also is fully accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) AAALAC Accreditation: April 3, 2019. An Animal Welfare Assurance (#D16-0014) is on file with OLAW-NIH; effective May 1, 2019-May 31, 2023.
- Mark Marsh, University College London, United Kingdom
© 2021, Haugh et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Reverse genetics is key to understanding protein function, but the mechanistic connection between a gene of interest and the observed phenotype is not always clear. Here we describe the use of proximity labeling using TurboID and site-specific quantification of biotinylated peptides to measure changes to the local protein environment of selected targets upon perturbation. We apply this technique, which we call PerTurboID, to understand how the P. falciparum exported kinase, FIKK4.1, regulates the function of the major virulence factor of the malaria causing parasite, PfEMP1. We generated independent TurboID fusions of 2 proteins that are predicted substrates of FIKK4.1 in a FIKK4.1 conditional KO parasite line. Comparing the abundance of site-specific biotinylated peptides between wildtype and kinase deletion lines reveals the differential accessibility of proteins to biotinylation, indicating changes to localization, protein-protein interactions, or protein structure which are mediated by FIKK4.1 activity. We further show that FIKK4.1 is likely the only FIKK kinase that controls surface levels of PfEMP1, but not other surface antigens, on the infected red blood cell under standard culture conditions. We believe PerTurboID is broadly applicable to study the impact of genetic or environmental perturbation on a selected cellular niche.
A hallmark of dengue virus (DENV) pathogenesis is the potential for antibody-dependent enhancement, which is associated with deadly DENV secondary infection, complicates the identification of correlates of protection, and negatively impacts the safety and efficacy of DENV vaccines. Antibody-dependent enhancement is linked to antibodies targeting the fusion loop (FL) motif of the envelope protein, which is completely conserved in mosquito-borne flaviviruses and required for viral entry and fusion. In the current study, we utilized saturation mutagenesis and directed evolution to engineer a functional variant with a mutated FL (D2-FL), which is not neutralized by FL-targeting monoclonal antibodies. The FL mutations were combined with our previously evolved prM cleavage site to create a mature version of D2-FL (D2-FLM), which evades both prM- and FL-Abs but retains sensitivity to other type-specific and quaternary cross-reactive (CR) Abs. CR serum from heterotypic (DENV4)-infected non-human primates (NHP) showed lower neutralization titers against D2-FL and D2-FLM than isogenic wildtype DENV2 while similar neutralization titers were observed in serum from homotypic (DENV2)-infected NHP. We propose D2-FL and D2-FLM as valuable tools to delineate CR Ab subtypes in serum as well as an exciting platform for safer live-attenuated DENV vaccines suitable for naïve individuals and children.