(A–D) We performed 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVAs on (A) reaction times (RTs), (B) perceptual sensitivity (d’), (C) hit rates, and (D) false alarm rates with the factors run number and congruency of the auditory stimulus. In (A–D), data are plotted as conflict effects (incongruent – congruent) and for separate runs. The top horizontal line shows significance of the interaction between session and congruency, and markers above the bars indicate significance of paired sample t-tests comparing incongruent and congruent for each run (shown data and results of t-tests can be found in Figure 4—figure supplement 1—source data 1). (A) RTs were unaffected by auditory congruency and run number (statistics in Results). (B) There was no interaction effect between congruency and run number on perceptual sensitivity (d’; statistics in Results), and post-hoc paired sample t-tests (incongruent – congruent) revealed that the effect of congruency on d’ was present during both runs. (C) The interaction between congruency and run number was not significant (F(1,23) = 2.99, p=0.10, = 0.12, BF01 = 1.64), showing that the effect of conflict on hit rate was not different for both runs, although the effect of conflict was present during the first, but not second run. (D) False alarm rates were not modulated by the interaction between congruency and run number (F(1,23) = 0.00, p=0.99, = 0.00, BF01 = 3.45), showing that the effects of conflict were not different between runs. This conflict effect was present during both runs. (E) There were no clusters for which the difference in decoding of all features between the two runs of the volume oddball task was significant, and there were also no differences within the preselected ROI (congruency: t(22) = 0.07, p=0.95, d = 0.01, BF01 = 4.56; content: t(22) = 0.64, p=0.53, d = 0.13, BF01 = 3.81; location: t(22) = –1.25, p=0.22, d = –0.26, BF01 = 2.29), suggesting that processing of these features was not affected by training. Thresholded (cluster-based corrected, p<0.05) accuracies are depicted across the frequency range (2–30 Hz). Plots show the difference in classifier accuracy between the two runs (run 2 – run 1) of stimulus congruency (left panel), stimulus content (middle panel), and stimulus location (right panel) in the volume oddball task. n.s.: p>0.05.