Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (Rreb1) is a zinc-finger transcription factor acting downstream of RAS signaling. Rreb1 has been implicated in cancer and Noonan-like RASopathies. However, little is known about its role in mammalian non-disease states. Here, we show that Rreb1 is essential for mouse embryonic development. Loss of Rreb1 led to a reduction in the expression of vasculogenic factors, cardiovascular defects and embryonic lethality. During gastrulation, the absence of Rreb1 also resulted in the upregulation of cytoskeleton-associated genes, a change in the organization of F-ACTIN and adherens junctions within the pluripotent epiblast, and perturbed epithelial architecture. Moreover, Rreb1 mutant cells ectopically exited the epiblast epithelium through the underlying basement membrane, paralleling cell behaviors observed during metastasis. Thus, disentangling the function of Rreb1 in development should shed light on its role in cancer and other diseases involving loss of epithelial integrity.
Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO under accession codes GSE148514. Source data files for Figure 3 have been provided.
A single-cell molecular map of mouse gastrulation and early organogenesis.ArrayExpress, Atlas: E-MTAB-6967; Smart-seq2 endothelial cells: E-MTAB-6970; Tal1−/− chimaeras: E-MTAB-7325; wild-type chimaeras: E-MTAB-7324.
The emergent landscape of the mouse gut endoderm at single-cell resolutionGEO, GSE123046 (scRNA-seq), GSE123124.
- Sophie M Morgani
- Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Animal experimentation: Animal experimentation: All mice used in this study were maintained in accordance with the guidelines of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) under protocol number 03-12-017 (PI Hadjantonakis).
- Lilianna Solnica-Krezel, Washington University School of Medicine, United States
© 2021, Morgani et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Nitric oxide (NO), as a gaseous therapeutic agent, shows great potential for the treatment of many kinds of diseases. Although various NO delivery systems have emerged, the immunogenicity and long-term toxicity of artificial carriers hinder the potential clinical translation of these gas therapeutics. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with the capacities of self-renewal, differentiation, and low immunogenicity, have been used as living carriers. However, MSCs as gaseous signaling molecule (GSM) carriers have not been reported. In this study, human MSCs were genetically modified to produce mutant β-galactosidase (β-GALH363A). Furthermore, a new NO prodrug, 6-methyl-galactose-benzyl-oxy NONOate (MGP), was designed. MGP can enter cells and selectively trigger NO release from genetically engineered MSCs (eMSCs) in the presence of β-GALH363A. Moreover, our results revealed that eMSCs can release NO when MGP is systemically administered in a mouse model of acute kidney injury (AKI), which can achieve NO release in a precise spatiotemporal manner and augment the therapeutic efficiency of MSCs. This eMSC and NO prodrug system provides a unique and tunable platform for GSM delivery and holds promise for regenerative therapy by enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of stem cells.
The ATPase p97 (also known as VCP, Cdc48) has crucial functions in a variety of important cellular processes such as protein quality control, organellar homeostasis, and DNA damage repair, and its de-regulation is linked to neuromuscular diseases and cancer. p97 is tightly controlled by numerous regulatory cofactors, but the full range and function of the p97–cofactor network is unknown. Here, we identify the hitherto uncharacterized FAM104 proteins as a conserved family of p97 interactors. The two human family members VCP nuclear cofactor family member 1 and 2 (VCF1/2) bind p97 directly via a novel, alpha-helical motif and associate with p97-UFD1-NPL4 and p97-UBXN2B complexes in cells. VCF1/2 localize to the nucleus and promote the nuclear import of p97. Loss of VCF1/2 results in reduced nuclear p97 levels, slow growth, and hypersensitivity to chemical inhibition of p97 in the absence and presence of DNA damage, suggesting that FAM104 proteins are critical regulators of nuclear p97 functions.