Graphs show estimated marginal means and standard errors for outbred (Ou, filled bars) and inbred (In, open bars), female (Fe, red bars) and male (Ma, blue bars) plants from Europe (Eu, dark coloured bars) and the North America (Na, bright coloured bars). Estimates were extracted from (generalised) linear mixed effects models for significant interaction effects and main effects of factors not involved in an interaction (significance levels based on Wald χ² tests denoted at top of plot). Interaction effect plots additionally indicate significant differences among breeding treatments, sexes, or origins within levels of other factors involved in the respective interaction (estimated based on post hoc comparisons, denoted within plots). Exact sample sizes for all traits are listed in Table 1. Significance levels: ***p<0.001, **p<0.01, *p<0.05, •p<0.06.