Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease observed with aging that represents the most common form of dementia. To date, therapies targeting end-stage disease plaques, tangles, or inflammation have limited efficacy. Therefore, we set out to identify a potential earlier targetable phenotype. Utilizing a mouse model of AD and human fetal cells harboring mutant amyloid precursor protein, we show cell intrinsic neural precursor cell (NPC) dysfunction precedes widespread inflammation and amyloid plaque pathology, making it the earliest defect in the evolution of the disease. We demonstrate that reversing impaired NPC self-renewal via genetic reduction of USP16, a histone modifier and critical physiological antagonist of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 1, can prevent downstream cognitive defects and decrease astrogliosis in vivo. Reduction of USP16 led to decreased expression of senescence gene Cdkn2a and mitigated aberrant regulation of the BMP pathway, a previously unknown function of USP16. Thus, we reveal USP16 as a novel target in an AD model that can both ameliorate the NPC defect and rescue memory and learning through its regulation of both Cdkn2a and BMP signaling.'
Datasets generated are available on Dryad Digital Repository (doi:10.5061/dryad.mpg4f4qz0 and doi.org/10.5061/dryad.vx0k6djtf)
Single-Cell RNA-sequencing of neural precursor cells from an Alzheimer's mouse model, wild-type mice, and Alzheimer's mice rescued with Usp16 haploinsufficiencyDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.mpg4f4qz0.
Microarray analysis of subventricular zone, hippocampus, and cortex from an Alzheimer's mouse model, wild-type mice, and Alzheimer's mice rescued with Usp16 haploinsufficiencyDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.vx0k6djtf.
- Elizabeth Y Chen
- Elizabeth Y Chen
- Robert C Jones
- Sai Saroja Kolluru
- Stephen R Quake
- Felicia Reinitz
- Elizabeth Y Chen
- Benedetta Nicolis di Robilant
- Jane Antony
- Neha Gubbi
- Dalong Qian
- Michael F Clarke
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Mice were housed in accordance with the guidelines of Institutional AnimalCare Use Committee. All animal procedures and behavioral studies involved in this manuscript are compliant to Stanford Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care (APLAC) Protocol 10868 pre-approved by the Stanford Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
- Jessica Young, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine (ISCRM, United States
© 2022, Reinitz et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Fusing brain organoids with blood vessel organoids leads to the incorporation of non-neural endothelial cells and microglia into the brain organoids.
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