(A) IP-GTT at week 9. Mice (n = 11–12) were fasted for 5 hr and received a glucose bolus (2 g/kg; 20% glucose solution, w/v) through i.p. injection. Average injection volume was 80.7 ± 2.0 µl, 79.6 ± 2.3 µl, 74.5 ± 2.1 µl, 67.1 ± 2.0 µl, and 62.8 ± 1.3 µl for HFD, HFD+LXN, HFD+HXN, HFD+TXN, and LFD mice, respectively. Circulating glucose levels were measured with AlphaTRAK2 blood glucose test strips and AlphaTRAK2 glucometer with cat setting (Zoetis Inc, MI) at 0 (before the injection), 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, and 2 hr after the injection by tail puncture with a 28-gauge lancet. Data is expressed as means ± se. (B) Total area under the curve (AUC) was calculated using the trapezoid rule and expressed in the unit ‘mg/dl x min’. Data is expressed as means ± se. Pre-planned general linear model with contrasts were used on the squared root of the total AUCs to calculate p-values. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p≤0.001. (C) Fasting plasma glucose level, (D) fasting insulin level, and (E) HOMA-IR at week 16 of feeding. Data is expressed as quartiles. Pre-planned general linear model with contrasts was used to calculate p-values. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p≤0.001.