(A) Electrode montage: the theta–gamma tACS montage was delivered with one electrode centred over right M1 (red, C4) and the other over the parietal vertex (blue, Pz). Insert: electrical field distribution projected on a rendered reconstruction of the cortical surface in a single individual, demonstrating significant current within M1. (B) tACS waveform: a 75 Hz gamma rhythm was amplitude modulated by the peak (theta–gamma peak [TGP]; upper panel) or trough (theta–gamma trough [TGT]; lower panel) envelope of a 2 mA peak-to-peak 6 Hz theta rhythm. (C) Experimental design: all subjects performed a baseline block, followed by five task blocks. In experiment 2, to assess the duration of behavioural effects, subjects performed an additional two task blocks 75 min after the initial task was complete. Each block consisted of 70 trials with an inter-block interval of 2 min, apart from a 10 min and 1 hr break after blocks 4 and 5, respectively. Stimulation was delivered for 20 min during the first three blocks. (D) Trial design: all trials began with three auditory warning tones acting as a ready-steady-go cue. At the third tone, participants abducted their thumb along the x-axis as quickly as possible and were given online visual feedback of their performance via a screen positioned in front of them. Feedback was presented as a scrolling bar chart with the magnitude of acceleration displayed on a trial-by-trial basis; a green bar indicated acceleration was higher than the previous trial and a red bar indicated the opposite.