Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators in stress responses and virulence. They can be derived from an expanding list of genomic contexts, such as processing from parental transcripts by RNase E. The role of RNase III in sRNA biogenesis is less well understood despite its well-known roles in rRNA processing, RNA decay, and cleavage of sRNA-mRNA duplexes. Here, we show that RNase III processes a pair of cis-encoded sRNAs (CJnc190 and CJnc180) of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. While CJnc180 processing by RNase III requires CJnc190, In contrast, RNase III processes CJnc190 independent of CJnc180 via cleavage of an intramolecular duplex. We also show that CJnc190 directly represses translation of the colonization factor PtmG by targeting a G-rich ribosome binding site, and uncover that CJnc180 is a cis-acting antagonist of CJnc190, indirectly affecting ptmG regulation. Our study highlights a role for RNase III in sRNA biogenesis and adds cis-encoded RNAs to the expanding diversity of transcripts that antagonize bacterial sRNAs.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript or are provided as supporting data files (e.g., gel images).
- Cynthia Mira Sharma
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Lydia Contreras, The University of Texas at Austin, United States
© 2021, Svensson & Sharma
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
For some inducible genes, the rate and molecular mechanism of transcriptional activation depends on the prior experiences of the cell. This phenomenon, called epigenetic transcriptional memory, accelerates reactivation and requires both changes in chromatin structure and recruitment of poised RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) to the promoter. Memory of inositol starvation in budding yeast involves a positive feedback loop between transcription factor-dependent interaction with the nuclear pore complex and histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation (H3K4me2). While H3K4me2 is essential for recruitment of RNAPII and faster reactivation, RNAPII is not required for H3K4me2. Unlike RNAPII-dependent H3K4me2 associated with transcription, RNAPII-independent H3K4me2 requires Nup100, SET3C, the Leo1 subunit of the Paf1 complex and, upon degradation of an essential transcription factor, is inherited through multiple cell cycles. The writer of this mark (COMPASS) physically interacts with the potential reader (SET3C), suggesting a molecular mechanism for the spreading and re-incorporation of H3K4me2 following DNA replication.
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination is confined to the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle partly due to 53BP1 antagonizing DNA end resection in G1 phase and non-cycling quiescent (G0) cells where DSBs are predominately repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Unexpectedly, we uncovered extensive MRE11- and CtIP-dependent DNA end resection at DSBs in G0 murine and human cells. A whole genome CRISPR/Cas9 screen revealed the DNA-dependent kinase (DNA-PK) complex as a key factor in promoting DNA end resection in G0 cells. In agreement, depletion of FBXL12, which promotes ubiquitylation and removal of the KU70/KU80 subunits of DNA-PK from DSBs, promotes even more extensive resection in G0 cells. In contrast, a requirement for DNA-PK in promoting DNA end resection in proliferating cells at the G1 or G2 phase of the cell cycle was not observed. Our findings establish that DNA-PK uniquely promotes DNA end resection in G0, but not in G1 or G2 phase cells, which has important implications for DNA DSB repair in quiescent cells.