(a) The reaction time (RT) difference of block (BL) 6–5 (learning acquisition) and BL 6–7 (learning retention) was significant only after sufficient sleep (BL 6–5: t=3.73, p<0.001; BL 6–7: t=2.95, p=0.003) but not sleep deprivation (BL 6–5: t=1.67, p=0.094; BL 6–7: t=0.95, p=0.337).( b) Performance was more erroneous after sleep deprivation. Asterisks (*) represent significant differences between learning block RTs (BL 6–5, BL 6–7). n=30.(c) For both P3 and C2 electrodes, the P300 amplitude (250–500 ms) was significantly larger in block 6 vs BL5 and 7 only after sufficient sleep (P3: t6-5=3.50, p<0.001, t6-7=3.30, p=0.003; C2: t6-5=2.74, p=0.010, t6-7=2.64, p=0.013) marked by the filled symbol. n=30. (d) Participants had more correct responses (t=3.56, p<0.001) and a higher d index (t=3.43, p=0.002) after having sufficient sleep vs sleep deprivation. (e) Performance speed was not significantly different but was more variable after sufficient sleep. n=30. (f) The P300 amplitude (300–600 ms) did not significantly differ across sleep conditions at electrodes Fz, Pz, and Cz. n=29. (g) RT of the congruent, incongruent, and overall trials in the Stroop task was significantly slower after sleep deprivation. (h) Participants displayed a significantly stronger Stroop interference effect (RTincongruent-RTcongruent) after sleep deprivation vs sufficient sleep (t=2.63, p=0.009). n=29. (i) The N200 (200–300 ms) at electrode Fz was significantly larger for incongruent trials, but not congruent trials, after sufficient sleep vs sleep deprivation. Both N200 and N450 (400–550 ms) were significantly larger for incongruent vs congruent trials only after sufficient sleep. (j,k) Participants were less accurate in identifying AX trials (t=5.30, p<0.001), had slower RT (t=3.29, p=0.003), and showed a larger variability of RT (t=3.13, p=0.004) after sleep deprivation vs sufficient sleep. (l) The P300 (300–600 ms) amplitude was significantly larger after sufficient sleep at electrodes Fz and Cz. n=27. All pairwise comparisons were calculated via post hoc Student’s t-tests (paired, p<0.05). Error bars represent s.e.m. ns: nonsignificant; Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences. Boxes indicate interquartile range that contains 50% of values (25th–75th) and whiskers show 1st–99th percentiles. See also Figure S1-S3.