(A) Increases in average β band activity are observed at all subcortical recording sites during stop trials (contrast shown is between successful stops and correct go trials). (B) The total number of β bursts was quantified between trial-wise stop-signal onset (SSD) and participant-wise SSRT. For matched go-trials, this window began at current SSD stored in the staircase. Each point represents the average burst count for one participant. β bursts increased at early latencies in STN and thalamus during successful cancellation (when quantified between SSD and SSRT) and at later latencies in both thalamus and STN during stop trials (panel D). (C) The differences in burst counts and rates in panels B and D could not be accounted for by differences in pre-go or pre-stop baseline burst rates, quantified in the 100ms preceding go- or stop-signal onset. (D) Average burst rates at each subcortical recording location time-locked to the stop-signal (left) or subject-wise SSRT (right) are depicted in time bins of 100ms. The gray lines on the time-bin plots show the SSRT sample average for STN and thalamic DBS patient groups. (Significant comparisons key: green stars = comparison between successful stop and go trials, navy stars = comparison between successful and failed stop trial; * indicates p < 0.05, ** indicates p < 0.01, *** indicates p < 0.001. Significant effects displayed in the plot are effects of TRIAL TYPE, on burst counts (B) or on burst rates at given time points (D).