Copy number variation (CNV) through gene or chromosome amplification provides a route for rapid phenotypic variation and supports long-term evolution of gene functions. Although the evolutionary importance of CNV is known, little is understood about how genetic background influences CNV tolerance. Here, we measured fitness costs of over 4,000 over-expressed genes in 15 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing different lineages, to explore natural variation in tolerating gene overexpression (OE). Strain-specific effects dominated the fitness costs of gene OE. We report global differences in the consequences of gene OE, independent of the amplified gene, as well as gene-specific effects that were dependent on the genetic background. Natural variation in the response to gene OE could be explained by several models, including strain-specific physiological differences, resource limitations, and regulatory sensitivities. This work provides new insight on how genetic background influences tolerance to gene amplification and the evolutionary trajectories accessible to different backgrounds.
Barcode sequencing data are available in the Short Read Archive under accession number GSE171586. RNA-Seq data are available in GEO accession number GSE171585.
- James Hose
- Adam Jochem
- Audrey P Gasch
- Mike Place
- Audrey P Gasch
- DeElegant Robinson
- DeElegant Robinson
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Kevin J Verstrepen, VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology, Belgium
© 2021, Robinson et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Eukaryotic genes are interrupted by introns that are removed from transcribed RNAs by splicing. Patterns of splicing complexity differ between species, but it is unclear how these differences arise. We used inter-species association mapping with Saccharomycotina species to correlate splicing signal phenotypes with the presence or absence of splicing factors. Here we show that variation in 5' splice site sequence preferences correlate with the presence of the U6 snRNA N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase METTL16 and the splicing factor SNRNP27K. The greatest variation in 5' splice site sequence occurred at the +4 position and involved a preference switch between adenosine and uridine. Loss of METTL16 and SNRNP27K orthologs, or a single SNRNP27K methionine residue, was associated with a preference for +4U. These findings are consistent with splicing analyses of mutants defective in either METTL16 or SNRNP27K orthologs and models derived from spliceosome structures, demonstrating that inter-species association mapping is a powerful orthogonal approach to molecular studies. We identified variation between species in the occurrence of two major classes of 5' splice sites, defined by distinct interaction potentials with U5 and U6 snRNAs, that correlates with intron number. We conclude that variation in concerted processes of 5' splice site selection by U6 snRNA is associated with evolutionary changes in splicing signal phenotypes.
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