Lung cancer (LC) prognosis is closely linked to the stage of disease when diagnosed. We investigated the biomarker potential of serum RNAs for the early detection of LC in smokers at different prediagnostic time intervals and histological subtypes. In total, 1061 samples from 925 individuals were analyzed. RNA sequencing with an average of 18 million reads per sample was performed. We generated machine learning models using normalized serum RNA levels and found that smokers later diagnosed with LC in 10 years can be robustly separated from healthy controls regardless of histology with an average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68-0.83). Furthermore, the strongest models that took both time to diagnosis and histology into account successfully predicted non-small cell LC (NSCLC) between 6 to 8 years, with an AUC of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.76-0.88), and SCLC between 2 to 5 years, with an AUC of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.77-1.0), before diagnosis. The most important separators were microRNAs, miscellaneous RNAs, isomiRs and tRNA-derived fragments. We have shown that LC can be detected years before diagnosis and manifestation of disease symptoms independently of histological subtype. However, the highest AUCs were achieved for specific subtypes and time intervals before diagnosis. The collection of models may therefore also predict the severity of cancer development and its histology. Our study demonstrates that serum RNAs can be promising prediagnostic biomarkers in a LC screening setting, from early detection to risk assessment.
The datasets generated for this manuscript are not readily available because of the principles and conditions set out in articles 6 (1) (e) and 9 (2) (j) of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). National legal basis as per the Regulations on population-based health surveys and ethical approval from the Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics (REC) is also required. Requests to access the datasets should be directed to the corresponding authors with a project proposal. Please refer to our project website for the latest information on data sharing (kreftregisteret.no/en/janusrna). Our scripts, plot data, and bioinformatics workflow files can be accessed from our Github repo (https://github.com/sinanugur/LCscripts).
Lung Cancer analyses scriptsGitHub.
- Hilde Langseth
- Trine B Rounge
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: This study was approved by the Norwegian Regional Committee for medical and health researchethics (REC no: 19892 previous 2016/1290) and was based on broad consent from participants in the Janus cohort. The work has been carried out in compliance with the standards set by the Declaration of Helsinki.
- YM Dennis Lo, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
© 2022, Umu et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Pancreatic cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and despite advancements in disease management, the 5 -year survival rate stands at only 12%. Triptolides have potent anti-tumor activity against different types of cancers, including pancreatic cancer, however poor solubility and toxicity limit their translation into clinical use. We synthesized a novel pro-drug of triptolide, (E)–19-[(1’-benzoyloxy-1’-phenyl)-methylidene]-Triptolide (CK21), which was formulated into an emulsion for in vitro and in vivo testing in rats and mice, and used human pancreatic cancer cell lines and patient-derived pancreatic tumor organoids. A time-course transcriptomic profiling of tumor organoids treated with CK21 in vitro was conducted to define its mechanism of action, as well as transcriptomic profiling at a single time point post-CK21 administration in vivo. Intravenous administration of emulsified CK21 resulted in the stable release of triptolide, and potent anti-proliferative effects on human pancreatic cancer cell lines and patient-derived pancreatic tumor organoids in vitro, and with minimal toxicity in vivo. Time course transcriptomic profiling of tumor organoids treated with CK21 in vitro revealed <10 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 3 hr and ~8,000 DEGs at 12 hr. Overall inhibition of general RNA transcription was observed, and Ingenuity pathway analysis together with functional cellular assays confirmed inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, increased oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading ultimately to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced B-cell-lymphoma protein 2 (BCL2) expression, and mitochondrial-mediated tumor cell apoptosis. Thus, CK21 is a novel pro-drug of triptolide that exerts potent anti-proliferative effects on human pancreatic tumors by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, leading ultimately to mitochondrial-mediated tumor cell apoptosis.
The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) methylates H3K27 to regulate development and cell fate by transcriptional silencing. Alteration of PRC2 is associated with various cancers. Here, we show that mouse Kdm1a deletion causes dramatic reduction of PRC2 proteins, whereas mouse null mutation of L3mbtl3 or Dcaf5 results in PRC2 accumulation and increased H3K27 trimethylation. The catalytic subunit of PRC2, EZH2, is methylated at lysine 20 (K20), promoting EZH2 proteolysis by L3MBTL3 and the CLR4DCAF5 ubiquitin ligase. KDM1A (LSD1) demethylates the methylated K20 to stabilize EZH2. K20 methylation is inhibited by AKT-mediated phosphorylation of serine 21 in EZH2. Mouse Ezh2K20R/K20R mutants develop hepatosplenomegaly associated with high GFI1B expression, and Ezh2K20R/K20R mutant bone marrows expand hematopoietic stem cells and downstream hematopoietic populations. Our studies reveal that EZH2 is regulated by methylation-dependent proteolysis, which is negatively controlled by AKT-mediated S21 phosphorylation to establish a methylation-phosphorylation switch to control the PRC2 activity and hematopoiesis.