In this study, we analyzed intracellular functions and motile properties of neck-linker (NL) variants of the bi-directional S. cerevisiae kinesin-5 motor, Cin8. We also examined – by modeling – the configuration of H-bonds during NL docking. Decreasing the number of stabilizing H-bonds resulted in partially functional variants, as long as a conserved backbone H-bond at the N-latch position (proposed to stabilize the docked conformation of the NL) remained intact. Elimination of this conserved H-bond resulted in production of a non-functional Cin8 variant. Surprisingly, additional H-bond stabilization of the N-latch position, generated by replacement of the NL of Cin8 by sequences of the plus-end directed kinesin-5 Eg5, also produced a nonfunctional variant. In that variant, a single replacement of N-latch asparagine with glycine, as present in Cin8, eliminated the additional H-bond stabilization and rescued the functional defects. We conclude that exact N-latch stabilization during NL docking is critical for the function of bi-directional kinesin-5 Cin8.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. All Source data files have been provided.
- Larisa Gheber
- Larisa Gheber
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Kristen J Verhey, University of Michigan, United States
© 2021, Goldstein-Levitin et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
β-Arrestins are master regulators of cellular signaling that operate by desensitizing ligand-activated G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the plasma membrane and promoting their subsequent endocytosis. The endocytic activity of β-arrestins is ligand dependent, triggered by GPCR binding, and increasingly recognized to have a multitude of downstream signaling and trafficking consequences that are specifically programmed by the bound GPCR. However, only one biochemical ‘mode’ for GPCR-mediated triggering of the endocytic activity is presently known – displacement of the β-arrestin C-terminus (CT) to expose clathrin-coated pit-binding determinants that are masked in the inactive state. Here, we revise this view by uncovering a second mode of GPCR-triggered endocytic activity that is independent of the β-arrestin CT and, instead, requires the cytosolic base of the β-arrestin C-lobe (CLB). We further show each of the discrete endocytic modes is triggered in a receptor-specific manner, with GPCRs that bind β-arrestin transiently (‘class A’) primarily triggering the CLB-dependent mode and GPCRs that bind more stably (‘class B’) triggering both the CT and CLB-dependent modes in combination. Moreover, we show that different modes have opposing effects on the net signaling output of receptors – with the CLB-dependent mode promoting rapid signal desensitization and the CT-dependent mode enabling prolonged signaling. Together, these results fundamentally revise understanding of how β-arrestins operate as efficient endocytic adaptors while facilitating diversity and flexibility in the control of cell signaling.
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