Many host RNA sensors are positioned in the cytosol to detect viral RNA during infection. However, most positive-strand RNA viruses replicate within a modified organelle co-opted from intracellular membranes of the endomembrane system, which shields viral products from cellular innate immune sensors. Targeting innate RNA sensors to the endomembrane system may enhance their ability to sense RNA generated by viruses that use these compartments for replication. Here, we reveal that an isoform of oligoadenylate synthetase 1, OAS1 p46, is prenylated and targeted to the endomembrane system. Membrane localization of OAS1 p46 confers enhanced access to viral replication sites and results in increased antiviral activity against a subset of RNA viruses including flaviviruses, picornaviruses, and SARS-CoV-2. Finally, our human genetic analysis shows that the OAS1 splice-site SNP responsible for production of the OAS1 p46 isoform correlates with protection from severe COVID-19. This study highlights the importance of endomembrane targeting for the antiviral specificity of OAS1 and suggests that early control of SARS-CoV-2 replication through OAS1-p46 is an important determinant of COVID-19 severity.
All data generated during this study are provided in the manuscript, supporting files, and source data files.Raw PLINK results for the association analysis of local subjects are provided in Supplementary File 5; association data for the GenOMICC replication cohort is available as described in the primary publication (Pairo-Castineira et al., 2020).Additional data on our local COVID-19 cohort is available upon request (KCerosaletti@benaroyaresearch.org). This is being done to protect the privacy of the subjects in this study as the data were obtained from samples recovered from the hospital clinical laboratory with IRB approval but without written consent. For commercial entities, availability of these data will be assessed on a case-by-case basis in conjunction with the Benaroya Research Institute business development office.
- Ram Savan
- Frank W Soveg
- Frank W Soveg
- Adriana Forero
- Ram Savan
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: A cohort of 99 healthy control subjects matched for ancestry (self-reported) was assembled from participants in the 1310 healthy control registry at Benaroya Research Institute. Both studies were approved by the Institutional Review Board at Benaroya Research Institute (IRB20-036 and IRB07109respectively).
- Jos W Van der Meer, Radboud University Medical Centre, Netherlands
© 2021, Soveg et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The regulation of inflammatory responses is an important intervention in biological function and macrophages play an essential role during inflammation. Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body and releases various factors which mediate anti-inflammatory/immune modulatory effects. Recently, the roles of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from a large variety of cells are reported. In particular, EVs released from skeletal muscle are attracting attention due to their therapeutic effects on dysfunctional organs and tissues. Also, ultrasound (US) promotes release of EVs from skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated the output parameters and mechanisms of US-induced EV release enhancement and the potential of US-treated skeletal muscle-derived EVs in the regulation of inflammatory responses in macrophages. High-intensity US (3.0 W/cm2) irradiation increased EV secretion from C2C12 murine muscle cells via elevating intracellular Ca2+ level without negative effects. Moreover, US-induced EVs suppressed expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors in macrophages. miRNA sequencing analysis revealed that miR-206-3p and miR-378a-3p were especially abundant in skeletal myotube-derived EVs. In this study we demonstrated that high-intensity US promotes the release of anti-inflammatory EVs from skeletal myotubes and exert anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages.
Thymus-originated tTregs and in vitro induced iTregs are subsets of regulatory T cells. While they share the capacity of immune suppression, their stabilities are different, with iTregs losing their phenotype upon stimulation or under inflammatory milieu. Epigenetic differences, particularly methylation state of Foxp3 CNS2 region, provide an explanation for this shift. Whether additional regulations, including cellular signaling, could directly lead phenotypical instability requires further analysis. Here, we show that upon TCR (T cell receptor) triggering, SOCE (store-operated calcium entry) and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) nuclear translocation are blunted in tTregs, yet fully operational in iTregs, similar to Tconvs. On the other hand, tTregs show minimal changes in their chromatin accessibility upon activation, in contrast to iTregs that demonstrate an activated chromatin state with highly accessible T cell activation and inflammation related genes. Assisted by several cofactors, NFAT driven by strong SOCE signaling in iTregs preferentially binds to primed-opened T helper (TH) genes, resulting in their activation normally observed only in Tconv activation, ultimately leads to instability. Conversely, suppression of SOCE in iTregs can partially rescue their phenotype. Thus, our study adds two new layers, cellular signaling and chromatin accessibility, of understanding in Treg stability, and may provide a path for better clinical applications of Treg cell therapy.