Phytophthora species cause diseases in a large variety of plants and represent a serious agricultural threat, leading, every year, to multibillion dollar losses. Infection occurs when these biflagellated zoospores move across the soil at their characteristic high speed and reach the roots of a host plant. Despite the relevance of zoospore spreading in the epidemics of plant diseases, characteristics of individual swimming of zoospores have not been fully investigated. It remains unknown about the characteristics of two opposite beating flagella during translation and turning, and the roles of each flagellum on zoospore swimming. Here, combining experiments and modeling, we show how these two flagella contribute to generate thrust when beating together, and identify the mastigonemes-attached anterior flagellum as the main source of thrust. Furthermore, we find that turning involves a complex active process, in which the posterior flagellum temporarily stops, while the anterior flagellum keeps on beating and changes its gait from sinusoidal waves to power and recovery strokes, similar to Chlamydomonas's breaststroke, to reorient its body to a new direction. Our study is a fundamental step towards a better understanding of the spreading of plant pathogens' motile forms, and shows that the motility pattern of these biflagellated zoospores represents a distinct eukaryotic version of the celebrated 'run-and-tumble' motility class exhibited by peritrichous bacteria.
All data generated and simulation files are available via Zenodo using this URL: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4710633. In the data, we include:(1) datasets of all zoospore positions along multiple trajectories in the experiment of Figure 2,(2) a MATLAB file to compute all the statistical results in Figure 2(D-G),(3) a MATLAB file containing the simulation model presented in Figure 2(H),(4) datasets of zoospore positions, speed, moving directions, body orientations during the turning, presented in Figure 4(A-D).
Cooperation of two opposite flagella allows high-speed swimming and active turning in zoosporesZenodo, doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4710633.
- Eric Galiana
- Xavier Noblin
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Raymond E Goldstein, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
© 2022, Tran et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
While foraging for nectar and pollen, bees are exposed to a myriad of xenobiotics, including plant metabolites, which may exert a wide range of effects on their health. Although the bee genome encodes enzymes that help in the metabolism of xenobiotics, it has lower detoxification gene diversity than the genomes of other insects. Therefore, bees may rely on other components that shape their physiology, such as the microbiota, to degrade potentially toxic molecules. In this study, we show that amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside found in honey bee-pollinated almond trees, can be metabolized by both bees and members of the gut microbiota. In microbiota-deprived bees, amygdalin is degraded into prunasin, leading to prunasin accumulation in the midgut and hindgut. In microbiota-colonized bees, on the other hand, amygdalin is degraded even further, and prunasin does not accumulate in the gut, suggesting that the microbiota contribute to the full degradation of amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide. In vitro experiments demonstrated that amygdalin degradation by bee gut bacteria is strain-specific and not characteristic of a particular genus or species. We found strains of Bifidobacterium, Bombilactobacillus and Gilliamella that can degrade amygdalin. The degradation mechanism appears to vary since only some strains produce prunasin as an intermediate. Finally, we investigated the basis of degradation in Bifidobacterium wkB204, a strain that fully degrades amygdalin. We found overexpression and secretion of several carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, including one in glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3). We expressed this GH3 in Escherichia coli and detected prunasin as a byproduct when cell lysates were cultured with amygdalin, supporting its contribution to amygdalin degradation. These findings demonstrate that both host and microbiota can act together to metabolize dietary plant metabolites.
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