Type IIa receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are essential for neural development. They have cell adhesion molecule (CAM)-like extracellular domains that interact with cell-surface ligands and coreceptors. We identified the immunoglobulin superfamily CAM Sticks and Stones (Sns) as a new partner for the Drosophila Type IIa RPTP Lar. Lar and Sns bind to each other in embryos and in vitro, and the human Sns ortholog, Nephrin, binds to human Type IIa RPTPs. Genetic analysis shows that Lar and Sns function together to regulate larval neuromuscular junction development, axon guidance in the mushroom body (MB), and innervation of the optic lobe medulla by R7 photoreceptors. In the neuromuscular system, Lar and Sns are both required in motor neurons, and may function as coreceptors. In the MB and OL, however, the relevant Lar-Sns interactions are in trans (between neurons), so Sns functions as a Lar ligand in these systems.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files; Source Data files have been provided for Figure 4, Figure 4 - figure supplement 1 and 2, Figure 6 and Figure 6 - Figure supplement 1.
- Kai Zinn
- Kai Zinn
- Namrata Bali
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- K VijayRaghavan, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India
© 2022, Bali et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
In order to understand morphogenesis, it is necessary to know the material properties or forces shaping the living tissue. In spite of this need, very few in vivo measurements are currently available. Here, using the early Drosophila embryo as a model, we describe a novel cantilever-based technique which allows for the simultaneous quantification of applied force and tissue displacement in a living embryo. By analyzing data from a series of experiments in which embryonic epithelium is subjected to developmentally relevant perturbations, we conclude that the response to applied force is adiabatic and is dominated by elastic forces and geometric constraints, or system size effects. Crucially, computational modeling of the experimental data indicated that the apical surface of the epithelium must be softer than the basal surface, a result which we confirmed experimentally. Further, we used the combination of experimental data and comprehensive computational model to estimate the elastic modulus of the apical surface and set a lower bound on the elastic modulus of the basal surface. More generally, our investigations revealed important general features that we believe should be more widely addressed when quantitatively modeling tissue mechanics in any system. Specifically, different compartments of the same cell can have very different mechanical properties; when they do, they can contribute differently to different mechanical stimuli and cannot be merely averaged together. Additionally, tissue geometry can play a substantial role in mechanical response, and cannot be neglected.
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